Plastids and microsomal membranes were isolated from pericarp tissue of mature-green and red-ripe bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit harvested from greenhouse- and field-grown plants. The lipid composition of these membrane fractions changed much more with ripening of field-grown than greenhouse-grown fruit. Also, the phospholipid (PL), free sterol (FS), steryl glycoside (SG), and acylated steryl glycoside (ASG) content of microsomes and plastids from green and red fruit were very different under the two growing conditions. Total steryl lipids (TSL = FS + SG + ASG) and the TSL: PL ratio increased in microsomes and decreased in plastids with ripening. These changes were much greater in field-grown fruit. The ASG: SG ratio decreased with ripening in both membrane fractions under both growing conditions. Ripening and growth conditions affected the phospholipid and sterol composition in plastids much more than in microsomes. Lipid changes associated with the chloroplast to chromoplast transformation were similar in field- and greenhouse-grown fruit, including an increase in the galactolipid: PL ratio.
Cristián Vela-Hinojosa, Héctor B. Escalona-Buendía, José A. Mendoza-Espinoza, Juan M. Villa-Hernández, Ricardo Lobato-Ortíz, Juan E. Rodríguez-Pérez, and Laura J. Pérez-Flores
and an immediate precursor of lycopene ( Liu et al., 2015 ). Tomatoes have two genes encoding PSY: PSY1 accumulates in chromoplasts, and PSY2 is associated with chloroplasts. The cyclization of lycopene for the formation of the β-carotene pigment is
Paemika Promkaew, Varit Srilaong, Chalermchai Wongs-Aree, Nutthachai Pongprasert, Samak Kaewsuksaeng, and Satoru Kondo
-CHX) and the induction of chromoplast-specific lycopene cyclase (βLCY) and lycopene ε-cyclase (ɛLCY) ( Cunningham, 2002 ). α-Carotene is converted to lutein by sequential hydroxylation, which is catalyzed by ε-ring hydroxylase (ɛCHX) and β-ring hydroxylase
Matthew W. Fidelibus, Karen E. Koch, and Frederick S. Davies
changes color from green to orange as part of a nonclimacteric phase of fruit development. This process, known as color break, involves conversion of chloroplasts to chromoplasts ( Huff, 1984 ) and extensive changes in associated gene expression ( Fujii et
We first investigated the ultrastructural changes of plastids of two fruit pigment genotypes of squash with isogenic backgrounds (YY and BB). In YY ovaries at anthesis chloroplasts contained granular osmiophilic bodies and a few thylakoids, having two features of chromoplasts and chloroplasts in the same organs. After anthesis grana structure gradually disappeared and the typical membranous chromoplasts formed at fruit maturity. On the other hand, proplastids observed in BB ovaries transformed directly into chromoplasts as fruits matured. The same fruits at different developmental stages were also used for protein analysis to provide the relationship between changes in ultrastructure and in protein profiles during plastid differentiation. SDS-PAGE showed that qualitatively similar total plasstid polypeptides for two lines at all stages of growth even though there were quantitative decreases or increases in the contents of a few polypeptides. Soluble and membrane associated proteins were extracted from total tissue of subepidermis of squash and showed remarkable differences regarding the relative amounts of many protein species from ovaries and mature fruits. Reduced amounts of the large and small subunits of RuBPCO were obvious especially in immature fruits compared with LS and SS of RuBPCO of squash leaves.
Cecilia E. McGregor and Don R. LaBonte
`White Jewel' is a yellow-and-orange fleshed spontaneous mutant of the orange-flesh sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivar Jewel. Mutations in storage root flesh color, and other traits are common in sweetpotato. The orange flesh color of sweetpotato is due to β-carotene stored in chromoplasts of root cells. β-carotene is important because of its role in human health. In an effort to elucidate biosynthesis and storage of β-carotene in sweetpotato roots, microarray analysis was used to investigate genes differentially expressed between `White Jewel' and `Jewel' storage roots. β-carotene content calculated from a* color values of `Jewel' and `White Jewel' were 20.66 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) and 1.68 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI) was down-regulated in `White Jewel', but farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS), geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS), and lycopene β-cyclase (LCY-b) were not differentially expressed. Several genes associated with chloroplasts were differentially expressed, indicating probable differences in chromoplast development of `White Jewel' and `Jewel'. Sucrose Synthase was down-regulated in `White Jewel' and fructose and glucose levels in `White Jewel' were lower than in `Jewel' while sucrose levels were higher in `White Jewel'. No differences were observed between dry weight or alcohol insoluble solids of the two cultivars. This study represents the first effort to elucidate β-carotene synthesis and storage in sweetpotato through large-scale gene expression analysis.
David M. Francis, Sheryl A. Barringer, and Robert E. Whitmoyer
Yellow shoulder disorder (YSD) is characterized by sectors of yellow or green tissue under the peel of uniform ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit. Tissues excised from sectors of fruit expressing YSD, from adjacent red sectors, and from mature green fruit were used to compare the ultrastructural alterations in cells and tissue affected by YSD and to determine whether the disorder is caused by delayed fruit maturation or by aberrant development. Cells from YSD sectors were smaller than those from both adjacent red-ripe tissue and mature green fruit. The smaller cells from the YSD sectors were at a different developmental stage than cells of the adjacent red-ripe tissue. Chromoplasts in red-ripe tissue were more advanced in development than those in YSD sectors or mature green fruit. Using the transition from chloroplast to chromoplast and the degradation of the middle lamella between adjacent cells as developmental markers, the maturity of tissue from YSD sectors appeared to be equal or greater than that of tissue from mature green fruit. However, cell enlargement, which takes place early in fruit development, was retarded in YSD sectors. Therefore, the ultrastructural features of YSD are not compatible with a delayed ripening model for this blotchy ripening disorder. These observations provide a basis for comparing YSD in uniformly ripening tomatoes with other blotchy ripening disorders.
Bruce D. Whitaker
Plastids and microsomal membranes were isolated from pericarp tissue of mature green and red-ripe tell pepper fruit harvested from greenhouse and field grown plants. The lipid composition of these membrane fractions changed far more with ripening of field grown than greenhouse grown fruit. Also, the phospholipid (PL), free sterol (FS), steryl glycoside (SG) and acylated steryl glycoside (ASG) content of microsomes and plastids from both green and red fruit were very different under the two growing conditions. Total steryl lipids (TSL = FS + SG + ASG), and the TSL/PL ratio, increased in microsomes and decreased in plastids with ripening. These changes were much greater in field grown fruit. The ASG/SG ratio decreased with ripening in both membrane fractions, under both growing conditions. Ripening and growth conditions affected the phospholipid and sterol composition in plastids much more than in microsomes. Lipid changes associated with the chloroplast – chromoplast transformation were similar in field and greenhouse grown fruit, including an increase in the galactolipid/PL ratio. Future studies will assess how differences in membrane lipid composition affect postharvest storage life of the fruit.
Zoltán Pék, Lajos Helyes, and Andrea Lugasi
Tomato fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process that culminates in dramatic changes in texture, color, flavor, and aroma of the fruit flesh. The characteristic pigmentation of red ripe tomato fruit is the result of the de novo synthesis of carotenoids, mainly lycopene and β-carotene, which are associated with the change in fruit color from green to red as chloroplasts are transformed to chromoplasts. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ripening conditions on color development and antioxidant content. Detached tomato fruit stored at 15 and 30 °C and vine-ripened fruits were studied to characterize the ripening process by Hue (°) index (CIELab color system), which is strongly influenced by the circumstances of ripening. Total polyphenols, ascorbic acid, and lycopene content of tomato fruits were analyzed at the end of the experiment. Changes in the color of fruit stored at 15 °C and vine-ripened fruit showed significantly higher a* compared with fruit stored at 30 °C. Storage temperature influenced positively ascorbic acid and negatively lycopene content, whereas total polyphenols did not show differences among the different ripening conditions.
S. Kalantari, G. Samson, J. Makhlouf, and J. Arul
The application of ultraviolet light on fruit and vegetables is a promising new method to control storage diseases and to delay the onset of senescence. In this investigation, we studied the effects of hormic dose (1,4 Merg•cm-2) of UV-radiation on the ripening of tomato pericarp discs by measuring different characteristics of ripening and senescence during storage. We observed that UV-treatment induced significant delays of the red color development, chlorophyll degradation, and lycopene production compared to control discs. UV-treatment also retarded the decline of the chlorophyll-a fluorescence ratios Fv: Fm and *F : Fm′, two characteristics related, respectively, to the maximum and operational quantum yield of photosystem II electron transport. Furthermore, the climacteric ethylene peak was delayed in the treated discs. However, UV-treatment did not alter textural changes, and the respiratory climacteric peaks were observed concomitantly for both treated and untreated tomato discs. However, the respiratory rate was consistently higher in treated discs. These results indicate that UV irradiation of tomato pericarp discs delays some processes of ripening associated with chloroplast to chromoplast transition whereas other ripening processes seem unaffected.