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Christopher A. Proctor, Daniel V. Weisenberger, and Zachary J. Reicher

-initiated study) or 3 years (2008-initiated study) after selective removal of PRG from one-quarter of each plot with 0.5 kg·ha −1 chlorsulfuron {2-chloro-N-[((4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino)carbonyl]benzenesulfonamide} plus 0.2% v/v nonionic

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J.M. Goatley Jr., A.J. Powell Jr., M. Barrett, and W.W. Witt

Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the basis for chlorsulfuron selectivity between Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. cv. Kenblue) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Rebel). Tall fescue absorbed and translocated more foliar-applied [14C]-labeled chlorsulfuron from the treated leaf than Kentucky bluegrass. The two species absorbed similar amounts of chlorsulfuron from nutrient solution into the roots, but tall fescue translocated more of the absorbed radioactivity to the shoots. Tall fescue metabolized chlorsulfuron in the shoots slightly more slowly than Kentucky bluegrass. Allof these factors apparently contributed to the higher tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass than of tall fescue to chlorsulfuron. Chemical name used: (2-chloro-N-[[4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5 -triazin-2-yl)amino]-carbonyl] benzenesulfonamide) (chlorsulfuron).

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Deniz İnci, Liberty Galvin, Kassim Al-Khatib, and Ahmet Uludağ

with glyphosate, the objectives of this study were to confirm and identify the level of glyphosate resistance in C. sumatrensis and to determine the effect of chlorsulfuron (an acetolactate inhibitor) and metribuzin (a photosynthetic inhibitor) on

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J.M. Goatley Jr., A.J. Powell Jr., W.W. Witt, and M. Barrett

Chlorsulfuron, diclofop, and sulfometuron were evaluated for potential use in selective control of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Polynomial trend analyses indicated highly significant linear and quadratic response curves for percentage of tall fescue reduction for each herbicide. Fall and spring treatments with chlorsulfuron and diclofop provided significant tall fescue control, with slight to moderate initial Kentucky bluegrass phytotoxicity. Fall and spring applications of sulfometuron resulted in excellent tall fescue control, but initial Kentucky bluegrass damage was severe and would be unacceptable for high maintenance turf. Chemical names used: 2-chloro- N -[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]-benzenesulfonamide (chlorsulfuron); 2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy]proponoate (diclofop); N -[[(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-methoxycarbonyl-benzenesulfonamide (sulfometuron).

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Kassim Al-Khatib, Robert Parker, and E. Patrick Fuerst

This study evaluated the response of rose to different herbicides applied as simulated drift. Chlorsulfuron {2-chloro-N-[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]benzenesulfonamide}, thifensulfuron {3[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]-2-thiophenecarboxylic acid}, bromoxynil(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), 2,4-D[(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid], glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine], and a combination of 2,4-D and glyphosate were applied over the top of established rose plants at 1/3, 1/10,1/33, and 1/100 of the maximum labeled rate for grains. All herbicides injured rose. The greatest injury was from chlorsulfuron and 2,4-D, and the least injury was from bromoxynil and glyphosate. Plants recovered from the injury caused by all treatments except for the highest rates of chlorsulfuron and 2,4-D, which continued to show significant injury at the end of the growing season. Although all herbicides had characteristic symptoms, some of these were very similar to those caused by other stresses. Therefore, because of the potential ambiguity of visual symptoms, any allegation about herbicide drift should be based on a report of all symptoms and should be supported by residue analysis.

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John E. Kaminski, Peter H. Dernoeden, and Cale A. Bigelow

The tolerance of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) seedlings to many herbicides has not been evaluated. Three field studies were conducted between fall and spring from 1998 to 2002 to assess creeping bentgrass seedling tolerance to five herbicides and paclobutrazol. The primary objectives of this investigation were to assess bentgrass tolerance to these chemicals when applied at various timings following seedling emergence, and establishment of new seedlings as influenced by potential soil residues in the spring following a fall application of the chemicals. Treatments were applied 2, 4, or 7 weeks after either `Crenshaw' or `L-93' creeping bentgrass seedlings had emerged. Siduron (6.7 and 9.0 kg·ha-1) and bensulide (8.4 kg·ha-1) were noninjurious when applied two weeks after seedling emergence (2 WASE). Bensulide (14 kg·ha-1), ethofumesate (0.84 kg·ha-1), prodiamine (0.36 kg·ha-1) and paclobutrazol (0.14 kg·ha-1) were too injurious to apply 2 WASE, but they were generally safe to apply at 4 WASE. Chlorsulfuron (0.14 kg·ha-1) was extremely phytotoxic to seedlings when applied 2 WASE. Plots were treated with glyphosate and overseeded the following spring. The overwintering soil residuals of prodiamine and bensulide (14.0 kg·ha-1) unacceptably reduced spring establishment. All other herbicides and paclobutrazol had little or no adverse residual effects on spring establishment. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl)gycline (glyphosate); (±)-(R*,R*)-beta-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-alpha-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); 2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-benzofuranyl methanesulfonate (ethofumesate); S-(0,0-diisopropyl phosphorodithioate) ester of N-(2-mercaptoethyl) benzenesulfonamide (bensulide); [1-(2-methylcyclohexyl)-3-phenylurea] (siduron); N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); 2-chloro-N-[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)aminocarbonyl] benzenesulfonamide (chlorsulfuron).

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Zachary D. Small, James D. McCurdy, Erick D. Begitschke, and Michael P. Richard

consistently controlled wild garlic; however, paraquat is not labeled for use in turfgrass. The acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides, such as metsulfuron ( Leys and Slife, 1987 ), chlorsulfuron ( Ferrell et al., 2004 ; Leys and Slife, 1982 , 1986

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Marcus A. Jones, Nick E. Christians, Daniel Weisenberger, and Zachary J. Reicher

applications of imazamethabenz-methyl. Similarly, Nalewaja and Woznica (1985) reported green foxtail ( Setaria viridis L.) susceptibility to chlorsulfuron increased as air temperatures decreased. Increased efficacy of sulfosulfuron applications later in fall

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Jerald K. Pataky, Martin M. Williams II, Dean E. Riechers, and Michael D. Meyer

Landi et al. (1989) and Volenberg et al. (2006) provide further evidence of intermediate responses of heterozygous hybrid cultivars. Landi et al. (1989) observed an intermediate response to chlorsulfuron, a different P450-metabolized sulfonylurea

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Mariano F. Galla, Bradley D. Hanson, and Kassim Al-Khatib

-Khatib and Tamhane, 1999 ; Al-Khatib et al., 1992 , 1993 ; Boutin et al., 2000 ; Fletcher at al., 1996 ; Hensley et al., 2012 ; Rana et al., 2014 ). For example, high concentrations of chlorsulfuron during reproductive growth phase reduced sweet cherry