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Chunxian Chen and William R. Okie

optimizing the choice of parents, to increase the efficiency of conventional breeding ( Scorza et al., 1985 ). Chloroplasts in flowering plants generally are inherited maternally ( Birky, 1995 ; Hansen et al., 2007 ), which allows tracking of the maternal

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Patrick P. Moore

The relationships among raspberry (Rubus spp.) clones were investigated using southern hybridization. Total DNA from 22 clones were digested with Bam III and Eco RI and hybridized with two sequences from a Pst I tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) chloroplast library. A total of 40 different restriction fragments were distinguished for the four enzyme probe combinations. These fragments distinguished seven groups of clones with members of each group having identical fragment patterns. Clones with R. idaeus L. maternal ancestry were distinct from those with R. occident&s L. or R. parvifolius L. ancestry. Differences were detected between R. idaeus vulgatus Arrhen. and R. idaeus strigosus (Michx.). No commercial cultivars had chloroplast DNA patterns that were the same as an accession of the R. idaeus strigosus subspecies.

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Jon Y. Suzuki, Tracie K. Matsumoto, Lisa M. Keith, and Roxana Y. Myers

biotechnological applications ( Matsumoto et al., 2013 ). In tropical ornamentals, including Anthurium , very few tools, simple or complex, for molecular evaluation of germplasm are available. Chloroplast gene markers have been used extensively for molecular

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Teresa Eileen Snyder-Leiby and Shixiong Wang

that deblossoming ‘Golden Delicious’ apple trees led to development of numerous large starch granules in the chloroplasts, which disrupted the membranes, leading to chlorosis. Similarly, Schaffer et al. (1986) reported chlorosis and chloroplast

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Dario J. Chavez, Thomas G. Beckman, and José X. Chaparro

using ITS and chloroplast trnL-trnF spacer DNA sequences. Subgenera Padus-Laurocerasus - Cerasus and subgenera Prunus - Amygdalus - Emplectocladus - Cerasus (section Microcerasus )-section Penarmeniaca formed two major clades, respectively. The

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Eun Ju Cheong, Myong-Suk Cho, Seung-Chul Kim, and Chan-Soo Kim

. Thus, we present the gaps coded ML ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1. RAxML tree based on eight concatenated coding and noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA showing phylogenetic relationships among accessions of wild and cultivated flowering cherries. Numbers above

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Mariem Bouhadida, Juan P. Martín, Gennady Eremin, Jorge Pinochet, María Á. Moreno, and Yolanda Gogorcena

, 1998 ). This PCR-RFLP method, also known as cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) ( Konieczny and Ausubel, 1993 ), is a readily accessible laboratory technique that can be used to evaluate large portions of the chloroplast genome in numerous

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Masanori Honjo, Sono Kataoka, Susumu Yui, Masami Morishita, Miyuki Kunihisa, Takayoshi Yano, Megumi Hamano, and Hiromichi Yamazaki

American cultivars came from only 17 cytoplasmic sources. However, further tracing was impossible owing to incomplete records. Because chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is unaffected by changes in ploidy, which can complicate phylogenetic analysis, the genome is

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Shuang Han, Jiafu Jiang, Huiyun Li, Aiping Song, Sumei Chen, and Fadi Chen

et al., 2012 ), the relationship—if any exists—between photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure has not been widely characterized. Phloem sieve elements are nonnucleated cells, largely controlled by their nucleolated companion cells, and their

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Patrick P. Moore

Cultivated raspberries may include North American red raspberry (Rubus idaeus strigosus Michx), European red raspberry (R. idaeus vulgatus Arrhen.) or black raspberry (R. occidentalis in their pedigrees. Twenty-one raspberry clones were investigated using chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphisms to determine the cytoplasm type and the amount of cytoplasmic diversity among these selected clones. The raspberry clones were selected representing North American red raspberry, European red raspberry, black raspberry and cultivars with divergent maternal lineages. Total cellular DNA was probed with two 32P-labelled fragments of tomato chloroplast DNA. Probe-restriction enzyme combinations were selected which discriminated between representatives of the two red raspberry subspecies. Raspberry clones were grouped according to the chloroplast restriction fragment patterns. The composition of the groups was compared with their pedigrees.