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Daniel A. Stanley and Donald J. Huber

In previous studies, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was shown to significantly suppress peel degreening and appearance of senescent spotting of banana fruit (Stanley and Huber, 2004). In the present study, the effect of the ethylene antagonist on banana pulp soluble sugar levels and on peel soluble and total phenolics was measured. One hundred and sixty hands (10 boxes) of banana fruit (Musaacuminata cv. Cavendish) were treated with ethylene (300 μL·L-1, 24 h, 15 °C, 90% RH) at a commercial ripening facility in Bradenton, Fla., and transported by truck (15 °C) to the University of Florida. Fruit were sorted and placed in 174-L ripening chambers, where 80 hands received 500 nL·L-1 1-MCP for two 12-h periods at 18 °C, while the other 80 hands (controls) were maintained in identical containers without 1-MCP for equal time periods at 18 °C. Mean whole fruit firmness in both treatment groups was 140 N and decreased to 15 N (controls) and 30 N (1-MCP) by day 12. Soluble sugars in the pulp of control fruit achieved levels between 160–180 mg·g-1 fresh weight by day 8, while 1-MCP treated fruit required about 12 days to achieve similar soluble sugar levels. Total phenolic compounds present in peel tissue of control and 1-MCP treated fruit required 10 and 14 days, respectively, to achieve levels of about 4000 μg·g-1 fresh weight. Chlorogenic acid levels, a subset of total peel phenolic compounds, peaked above 500 μg·g-1 by day 10 in control fruit and by day 12 in 1-MCP treated fruit. Maintenance of fruit firmness along with the achievement of acceptable sugar levels of 1-MCP treated fruit demonstrate possible benefits of suppression of ethylene action for retail and processing markets for banana fruit.

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Malkeet S. Padda and D.H. Picha

. Recently, the chemopreventive properties of extract from baked sweetpotato have been associated with the presence of certain phenolic compounds ( Rabah et al., 2004 ). The phenolic acids such as chlorogenic acid (ChlA), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA

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Xiaoming Wang, Jianjun Chen, Yongxin Li, Qiying Nie, and Junbin Li

-D-quinic acid or chlorogenic acid (CGA) being a major ingredient. In addition to having antipyretic properties, CGA has been reported to suppress N -nitrosating reactions and inhibit hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase, which may be a significant factor in the

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Malkeet S. Padda and David H. Picha

phenolic antioxidant compounds such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and dicaffeoylquinic acids with different antimutagenic effects ( Walter et al., 1979 ; Yoshimoto et al., 2002 ). The increase in phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed

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Daniel Ferreira Holderbaum, Tomoyuki Kon, Tsuyoshi Kudo, and Miguel Pedro Guerra

compounds {chlorogenic acid, [−]-catechin [(−)- trans -3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavane], [−]-epicatechin, [−]-epicatechin gallate [(−)- cis -3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavane-3-gallate], [−]-epigallocatechin gallate [(−)- cis -3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxy

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Howard F. Harrison Jr, Trevor R. Mitchell, Joseph K. Peterson, W. Patrick Wechter, George F. Majetich, and Maurice E. Snook

. 1996a , 1996b ; Zhu et al., 1999 ); and reduction of the high cholesterol accumulation associated with ethanol consumption in rats ( Wojcicki, 1978 ). Fig. 1. Structures of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4

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Allan F. Brown, Gad G. Yousef, Ivette Guzman, Kranthi K. Chebrolu, Dennis J. Werner, Mike Parker, Ksenija Gasic, and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

). Commercial flavonoid standards of procyanidins (B1 and B2), catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, quercetin glycosides, and cyanidin glycosides were purchased from Chromadex (Irvine, CA). Neochlorogenic acid was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. Five flavonoid

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Togo Shinohara, Shinsuke Agehara, Kil Sun Yoo, and Daniel I. Leskovar

Texas A&M Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory in College Station, TX. Sample preparation for phenolic compounds. Total phenolics, chlorogenic acid, and cynarin content of artichoke heads were determined during harvest at three times (separated as

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Xin Zhao, Edward E. Carey, Janice E. Young, Weiqun Wang, and Takeo Iwamoto

standards, chlorogenic acid (Sigma-Aldrich), quercetin-3- O -glucoside (Indofine Chemical Co., Inc., Hillsborough, N.J.), rutin (quercetin-3- O -rutinoside) (Acros Organics, Geel, Belgium), and luteolin-7- O -glucoside (Indofine Chemical Co., Inc.). In

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Md. Shahidul Islam, Makoto Yoshimoto, Koji Ishiguro, Shigenori Okuno, and Osamu Yamakawa

The phenolic content and the radical scavenging activity were compared in leaves of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars Shimon-1, Kyushu-119 and Elegant Summer grown under different temperature and shading conditions. Compared to cultivar differences, there was less effect of temperature and shading on the total phenolic content in sweetpotato leaves, however certain polyphenolic components differed widely among the treatments. The positive correlation between the radical scavenging activity and the level of total phenolics (r = 0.62) suggests that phenolic compounds are important antioxidant components of sweetpotato leaves. All the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) profiles of the cultivars tested showed peaks at the same retention times but peak areas of individual phenolic compounds differed with respective temperature and shading treatments. The phenolic compounds identified in the sweetpotato leaf were caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Most of the phenolic compounds were highest in leaves from plants grown at 20 °C without shading except 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The results indicate that growing leaves under moderately high temperatures and in full sun enhances the accumulation of phenolic components. These phenolic components have possible value in enhancing human health.