; Blanchard and Runkle, 2007 ). Many PGRs are known to block the multistep biosynthesis pathways of gibberellic acid (GA). Depending on the compound, some act during earlier steps of the GA biosynthesis pathways, such as chlormequat chloride (CCC), whereas
Mengzi Zhang, Jie Yang, Huitang Pan, and Brian J. Pearson
C.M. Roberts, G.W. Eaton, and F.M. Seywerd
Paclobutrazol treatments of 0, 0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 mg/plant improved the form of Tibouchina urvilleana (DC.) standards and eliminated the need for pruning during the display season. Paclobutrazol did not improve the form of Fuchsia × hybrida Hort. ex Vllm. Paclobutrazol inhibited trunk caliper development in both species. Paclobutrazol at 0.125 mg/plant slightly increased Tibouchina flower size. Chlormequat at 0, 1000, or 2000 mg/plant did not hasten flowering of Tibouchina. Chemical names used: ß-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α- (1,1-dimethylethyl) -1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); α-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanammonium chloride (chlormequat).
Amir Rezazadeh and Richard L. Harkess
produce compact plants ( Gibson and Whipker, 2001 ; Krug et al., 2005 ; Schluttenhofer et al., 2011 ; Warner and Erwin, 2003 ). Chlormequat and daminozide are growth regulators frequently applied to limit plant height in poinsettia [ Euphorbia
P.R. Fisher, R.D. Heins, and J.H. Lieth
Stem elongation response to a single foliar application of the growth retardant chlormequat chloride [(2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride] for poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Klotz.) was quantified. Growth retardant applications did not affect final leaf count or timing of visible bud, first bract color, or anthesis. There was a statistically significant effect of growth retardant concentration on stem elongation, with a range from 289 ± 15 mm (mean 95% confidence intervals) for the control plants to 236 ± 17 mm at 4000 ppm. The growth-retarding effect during the first day after the application was not significantly different between 500 and 4000 ppm, and concentration primarily affected the duration of growth-retarding activity. A dose response function was incorporated into a three-phase mathematical function of stem elongation of single-stem poinsettia to predict elongation of treated and untreated plants. The model was calibrated using a data set from plants receiving 0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, and 4000 ppm, with a resulting R 2 of 0.99. Validation of the dose response model against an independent data set resulted in an r 2 of 0.99, and predicted final stem length was within 12 mm of observed final length.
Janet C. Henderson and Thomas H. Nichols
Pyracantha coccinea M.J. Roem. `Kasan' and `Lalandei' were treated with a soil drench of 30 mg a.i. chlormequat chloride per container or 0, 0.25, 0.50, or 1.00 mg a.i. uniconazole per container or with a foliar application of 3000 mg a.i. chlormequat chloride/liter or 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg a.i. uniconazole/liter. Chlormequat chloride applied as a drench did not affect growth of `Kasan' or `Lalandei' until 17 weeks after application, when `Kasan' was taller and `Lalandei' shorter than untreated plants. `Kasan' plants drenched with chlormequat chloride had more leaves with greater total leaf area and higher leaf and stem dry weights than untreated plants. However, area per leaf, root dry weight, and root: shoot ratio were not affected by the chlormequat chloride drench. In `Lalandei', the chlormequat chloride drench did not affect any of these criteria, except stem dry weight. Foliar applications of chlormequat chloride had little effect on either cultivar. Height of `Kasan' and `Lalandei' decreased with increasing uniconazole rates for both application methods. Area per leaf increased in `Kasan' but decreased in `Lalandei' receiving a drench applied to the medium. Foliar and drench applications of uniconazole both resulted in decreased stem dry weight of both cultivars. Chemical names used: 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat chloride); (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol (uniconazole).
Kelly P. Lewis, James E. Faust, James D. Sparkman IV, and Larry W. Grimes
Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzch) `Freedom Red' (FR), `Success Red' (SR), and `Winter Rose Dark Red' (WRDR) and pansy (Viola wittrockiana Gams.) `Colossus Yellow Blotch' (CYB), `Delta Pure Yellow' (DPY), and `Majestic Giants Purple' (MGP) were treated with 14 different tank mix combinations of daminozide and chlormequat ranging from 0 to 4500 mg·L-1 daminozide and 0 to 1500 mg·L-1 chlormequat. The tank mix treatments reduced stem elongation for all three poinsettia cultivars. Total bract area of FR and canopy bract diameter of WRDR decreased linearly as daminozide or chlormequat concentration increased, while bract area of SR was affected by daminozide alone. Anthesis was not delayed by any of the plant growth regulator (PGR) applications. For pansies, growth responses to the PGR treatments varied with cultivar. CYB growth was affected by daminozide alone, DPY growth was affected by daminozide and/or chlormequat, while MGP growth was relatively insensitive to both PGRs. Time to flower of pansy was not affected by the PGR applications. Chemical names used: 2-chloroethyl N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat chloride); butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide).
I. Papageorgiou, P. Giaglaras, and E. Maloupa
Growth retardants allowed production of more uniform, compact, flowering plants for commercial use of lavender (Lavandula stoechas). Paclobutrazol at 200, 400 and 600 mg·L-1 (ppm) was sprayed in a single or double application. Chlormequat was applied at 4000, 6000 and 8000 mg·L-1 in single, double or triple spray applications repeated every 13 days. Paclobutrazol reduced lateral shoot elongation and plant height, increased the number of nodes within lateral shoots, but delayed time to anthesis. In contrast, chlormequat reduced plant height with no effect on flowering. Paclobutrazol potentially may be used commercially on lavender at rates of 200 to 400 mg·L-1 in single or double applications. The same result may be achieved with chlormequat by using 4000 to 6000 mg·L-1 in three or more applications.
L.S. Osborne and A.R. Chase
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. plants treated three times with 850 mg·liter-1 of the growth retardant chlormequat chloride (CCC) were less susceptible to infestation with Tetranychus urticae (Koch) than water-treated control plants. The difference in mite numbers was noted within 8 days after releasing mites onto test plants. Mean number of mites per treated plant was 3.7, compared to 30 on nontreated plants. This activity was observed on all treated plants 6 months after applying CCC. Significant differences were observed on treated plants that were defoliated and allowed to produce new foliage before being evaluated. Therefore, surface chemical residues were not responsible for reducing mite infestations on CCC-treated plants.
Serge Gagnon and Blanche Dansereau
Our purpose was to determine growth regulators rate effects on growth and development of aster Callistephus chinensis. During Spring 1993 and 1994, six aster cultivars were sown into 200-unit plug trays containing Pro-Mix PGX. Seedlings were transplanted into 10-cm pots containing Pro-Mix. Two weeks after transplanting, seedlings were sprayed with chlormequat chloride (CCC) at 750 or 1500 ppm and were compared to nontreated plants. A second application was applied 2 weeks later. Growth and development of asters were affected differently depending on cultivars and experimental season. During Spring 1994, a CCC treatment of 750 and 1500 ppm significantly reduced height and width of Dwarf Carpet Mix and Dwarf Spider Mix without affecting the number of flowers and total production time compared to nontreated plants. Growth regulator treatments had no effect on height and width of `Milady Mix' and `Starlight Rose'. However, the 750 ppm CCC treatment reduced the number of flowers produced by these two cultivars. Results obtained in 1993 also are presented.
Michael R. Evans, Harold F. Wilkins, and Wesley P. Hackett
Exogenous foliar spray applications of gibberellic acid (GA3) applied at 7- or 14-day intervals providing 50 or 125 μg per plant inhibited long-day (LD) floral initiation in poinsettia [Euphorbia pulcherrima (Willd. ex. Klotzsch)]. Periodic application of GA3 resulted in an additional number of nodes being produced by the plant before floral initiation equivalent to the number of nodes over which GA3 was applied. Further, GA, application eliminated the nodal position dependence of the long-day node number (LDNN) of axillary meristems observed in control plants. It was concluded that GA3 application inhibited the inclusion of nodes into the LDNN count and thus inhibited ontogenetic aging of the meristem. Exogenous application of GA, also inhibited LD floral initiation, while application of GA4 had no effect. Application of GA7 delayed LD floral initiation, but plants did initiate cyathia by the termination of the experiment. All gibberellins increased the average internode lengths similarly. The gibberllin-biosynthesis inhibitors chlormequat and paclobutrazol had no effect on LD floral initiation when applied as single or multiple foliar sprays or as soil drenches, although heights and internode lengths were reduced by application of the inhibitors. The LDNN of plants grown at 31C was significantly higher than of plants grown at 16, 21, or 26C. All plants eventually initiated cyathia regardless of temperature. When plants were grown under a range of day/night temperatures, an increase in the LDNN occurred only when plants were grown at 31C during the day. Chemical names used: 2-chloroethyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (chlormequat); (+/-)-(R*,R*)-β -(4-chlorophenyl)methyl-α -(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1-H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).