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Samira Samarfard, Mihdzar A. Kadir, Saleh B. Kadzimin, Halimi M. Saud, Seyed Ali Ravanfar, and Mahmoud Danaee

Ernest, 1993 ). Chitosan is an environmentally friendly carbohydrate that has been reported to stimulate growth of several plant species, including orchids ( Nge et al., 2006 ). TDZ is the most compelling cytokinin for enhancing PLB proliferation and

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Young-Sang Lee, Yong-Ho Kim, and Sung-Bae Kim

To study the effects of chitosan on the productivity and nutritional quality of soybean (Glycine max L.) sprouts, soybean seeds were soaked in solutions containing 1,000 ppm chitosan of low (<10 kDa), medium (50 to 100 kDa), or high (>1,000 kDa) molecular weight, and the respiration, growth, and vitamin C content of the sprouts were subsequently evaluated. Sprouts treated with high molecular weight chitosan exhibited a significant increase in respiration, 5%, within 1 day of treatment. Chitosan effectively increased the growth of the sprouts: sprouts treated with high molecular weight chitosan showed increases of 3%, 1%, 3%, 1%, and 12% in the total length, hypocotyl length, root length, hypocotyl thickness, and fresh weight, respectively, as compared to a control. The growth-improving effects of chitosan were proportional to the molecular weight of the molecule used in the treatment. Chitosan treatment did not result in any significant reduction in vitamin C content or postharvest chlorophyll formation, traits that determine the nutritional and marketing values of soybean sprouts. All these results suggest that soaking soybean seeds in a solution of chitosan, especially of high molecular weight, may effectively enhance the productivity of soybean sprouts without adverse effects on the nutritional and postharvest characteristics.

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José Luis Chaves-Gómez, Alba Marina Cotes-Prado, Sandra Gómez-Caro, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

substances of natural origin that can act as biostimulants in plants ( Ab Rahman et al., 2017 ; Mesa et al., 2017 ). One of these substances, chitosan, has been used as an ecofriendly biopesticide because it is biodegradable, nontoxic, and biocompatible

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Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou

Chitosan is the deacetylated form of chitin, which is the second most abundant polysaccharide on the planet and the main component of fungal cell walls, insect exoskeletons, and crustacean shells ( Gooday, 1990 ). It was initially reported as an

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Augusto Ramírez-Godoy, María del Pilar Vera-Hoyos, Natalia Jiménez-Beltrán, and Hermann Restrepo-Diaz

defense mechanisms in plants against the attack of biotic agents (macro- and microorganisms) are SA, phytohormones, chitosan, and thiamine (vitamin B1) ( Ahn et al., 2005 ; El Hadrami et al., 2010 ; Thakur and Sohal, 2013 ). Thiamine is a B

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Napaporn Sae-Lee, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, Natta Laohakunjit, Benjawan Thumthanaruk, Dipayan Sarkar, and Kalidas Shetty

context, coupled to elicitation with natural moieties such as chitosan or their derivatives, the macronutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus not only influence plant primary metabolism but also have a role in biosynthesis of the secondary

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C. Siobhan Dunets and Youbin Zheng

fine precipitate into larger flocs and speedup settling could aid in streamlining the separation and recovery process. Readily available, low-cost biopolymers such as starch ( Vandamme et al., 2009 ), chitosan ( Roussy et al., 2004 ), various types of

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Ahmed El Ghaouth, Rathy Ponnampalam, François Castaigne, and Joseph Arul

The effect of chitosan on respiration, ethylene production, and quality attributes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit stored at 20C was investigated. Coating the fruit with chitosan solutions reduced the respiration rate and ethylene production, with greater effect at 2% than 1% chitosan. Coating increased the internal CO, and decreased the internal O2 levels of the tomatoes. Chitosan-coated tomatoes were firmer, higher in titratable acidity, less decayed, and exhibited less red pigmentation than the control fruit at the end of storage. Chemical name used: 2-amino-2- deoxy-p-D)-glucan (chitosan).

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K. Ohta, A. Taniguchi, N. Konishi, and T. Hosoki

The effects of chitosan treatment on plant growth and flower quality of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. were investigated. The application of a soil mix of chitosan (1%, w/w) at sowing time remarkably enhanced growth, whereas coating seed with 0.1% chitosan in lactate was ineffective. Plants grown in the chitosan-treated soil flowered 15 days earlier than did control plants, and the number and weight of cut flowers produced were greater than for control plants or plants from chitosan-treated seed. Chemical name used: poly-(1→4)-β-D-glucoseamine (chitosan).

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M.V. Bhaskara Reddy, Essaid Ait Barka, F. Castaigne, and Joseph Arul

The antifungal activity of chitosan, a bioplymer of β-1-4 gluscosamine, against Alternaria alternata, causal agent of black mold of tomato, was investigated. Chitosan was incorporated into potato dextrose broth (PDB) at concentrations of 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, and 6400 μg·ml–1, growth and toxin production by the fungus were assessed after a 15-day incubation period. Chitosan significantly affected both growth and toxin production at higher concentrations. However, at lower concentrations, toxin production was affected more than the growth, as evidenced by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of chitosan derived for toxin production and mycelial growth. Excess sporulation of the fungus was observed in the presence of chitosan, but the spore viability was affected. Chitosan induced aggregation of fungal cells, abnormal shape, excess branching, and hyphal contortion. It also induced leakage of proteins from the fungal cells. The virulence of the toxin in culture filtrate of the fungus from different concentrations of chitosan was assayed by administering on tomato discs. Phospholipid content, electrolyte leakage, xylanase, and pectin methylesterase activity were measured in the culture filtrate administered tomato tissue. Decreased trend in causing electrolyte leakage, phospholipid degradation, and activation of xylanase and pectin methylesterase were observed with increasing concentrations of chitosan. The results showed that chitosan inhibits fungal growth at higher concentrations than toxin production. Further toxin produced at lower concentrations of chitosan was less virulent. Thus chitosan has potential as an antifungal agent.