was to determine if increasing the N content of fertilizers applied to transplanted container-grown areca palm and chinese hibiscus plants could accelerate the rate of establishment without exacerbating K and/or Mg deficiencies. Materials and methods
Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly Anne Moore
Cecil T. Pounders and Hamidou F. Sakhanokho
Chinese hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) or tropical hibiscus is extensively planted as a flowering pot plant worldwide and as a flowering shrub throughout tropical regions. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has not been reported from the wild and is
Cecil T. Pounders and Hamidou Sakhanokho
Tropical hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.), also commonly known as the shoe flower or chinese hibiscus, is a widely planted tropical flowering shrub throughout the world. This cultivated species is generally a highly heterozygous polyploid of
Timothy K. Broschat
. Also, another dicot species, chinese hibiscus, was included and no pour-through soil extractions were performed at week 26. Natural rainfall during this experiment was about 46 inches. All other procedures were identical to those used in Expt. 1
Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly K. Moore
In two experiments, chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), bamboo palm (Chamaedorea seifrizii), areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), fishtail palm (Caryota mitis), macarthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), shooting star (Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum), downy jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), plumbago (Plumbago auriculata), alexandra palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae), and foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata) were transplanted into 6.2-L (2-gal) containers. They were fertilized with Osmocote Plus 15N-3.9P-10K (12-to14-month formulation) (Expt. 1) or Nutricote Total 18N-2.6P-6.7K (type 360) (Expt. 2) applied by either top dressing, substrate incorporation, or layering the fertilizer just below the transplanted root ball. Shoot dry weight, plant color, root dry weights in the upper and lower halves of the root ball, and weed shoot dry weight were determined when each species reached marketable size. Optimal fertilizer placement method varied among the species tested. With the exception of areca palm, none of the species tested grew best with incorporated fertilizer. Root dry weights in the lower half of the root ball for chinese hibiscus, bamboo palm, and downy jasmine were greatest when the fertilizer was layered and root dry weights in the upper half of the root ball were greatest for top-dressed chinese hibiscus. Weed growth was lower in pots receiving layered fertilizer for four of the six palm species tested.
Raymond A. Cloyd, Stephen R. Keith and Cindy L. Galle
Insect growth regulators, which are primarily used to kill the larval stages of certain insect groups, have indirect effects on the adult stage of whiteflies. In this study, we assessed the effect of the insect growth regulator novaluron (Pedestal) on the reproduction of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii). Two experiments were conducted by exposing adult female silverleaf whiteflies to the low [0.47 mL·L-1 (6 floz/100 gal)] and high [0.63 mL·L-1 (8 floz/100 gal)] label-recommended rates of novaluron. There was also an untreated control. Infested plants [mist flower (Eupatorium coelenstinum) and transvaal daisy (Gerbera jamesonii) for Expt. 1 and Expt. 2, respectively] containing adult female silverleaf whiteflies were sprayed with novaluron using a carbon dioxide (CO2) backpack sprayer. Plants were immediately placed into cages covered with antivirus insect screening. After 24 hours, six adult female silverleaf whiteflies were aspirated from the treated plants, and immobilized with CO2 before being placed onto untreated plants [transvaal daisy for Expt. 1, and rose-of-china (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) for Expt. 2]. Three munger cells containing two adult female silverleaf whiteflies per cell were attached to leaves of each of the untreated plants. The number of live and dead eggs, and live nymphs per plant was assessed 4 and 8 days after treatment (DAT). In Expt. 1, the low rate of novaluron significantly reduced egg viability compared to the untreated control based on live nymphal counts 8 DAT. In Expt. 2, both rates of novaluron significantly reduced egg viability compared to the untreated control, based on live nymphal counts and number of dead eggs 8 DAT. The results from this study indicate that novaluron negatively affected female silverleaf whitefly reproduction by reducing egg viability, which may decrease the number of silverleaf whiteflies produced during a cropping cycle. This is an important long-term pest management strategy that may reduce the number of insecticide applications and decrease labor costs.
Timothy K. Broschat
Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-chinensis), shooting star (Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum), downy jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), and `Jetty' spathiphyllum (Spathiphyllum) were grown in containers using Osmocote Plus 15-9-12 (15N-3.9P-10K), which provided phosphorus (two experiments), or resin-coated urea plus sulfur-coated potassium sulfate, which provided no phosphorus (one experiment). Plants were treated with water drenches (controls), drenches with metalaxyl fungicide only, drenches with phosphoric acid (PO4-P), drenches with metalaxyl plus phosphorus from phosphoric acid, drenches with PhytoFos 4-28-10 [4N-12.2P-8.3K, a fertilizer containing phosphorous acid (PO3-P), a known fungicidal compound], or a foliar spray with PhytoFos 4-28-10. Plants receiving soil drenches with equivalent amounts of P from PhytoFos 4-28-10, PO4-P, or PO4-P+metalaxyl generally had the greatest shoot and root dry weights and foliar PO4-P concentrations. There were no differences between the control and metalaxyl-treated plants, indicating that root rot diseases were not a factor. Therefore, responses from PhytoFos 4-28-10 were believed to be due to its nutrient content, rather than its fungicidal properties. Foliar-applied PhytoFos 4-29-10 produced plants that were generally similar in size to control plants or those receiving metalaxyl only drenches. Fertilizers containing PO3-P appear to be about as effective as PO4-P sources when applied to the soil, but are relatively ineffective as a P source when applied as a foliar spray. A distinct positive synergistic response for shoot and root dry weights and foliar PO4-P concentrations was observed for the PO4-P+metalaxyl treatment when no P was applied except as a treatment.
Timothy K. Broschat
. Relatively little research has been published on fertilizer requirements of shrubs in sand soils of Florida and much of that has used chinese hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ), a species that may be atypical for tropical and subtropical shrubs because of
. 389) showed that use of high-N fertilizer during the first 6 months followed by a lower-N landscape palm maintenance fertilizer for subsequent applications resulted in good color in areca palms and chinese hibiscus without exacerbating magnesium
Ji Jhong Chen, Yuxiang Wang, Asmita Paudel and Youping Sun
not show significant foliar salt damage at any salinity levels ( Fig. 1A ). However, in a previous study, ‘Brilliant’ chinese hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ) was found having foliar salt damage when the salinity level of irrigation water was