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Yulan Xiao and Toyoki Kozai

A photoautotrophic or sugar-free medium micropropagation system (PAM) using five large culture vessels (volume = 120 L each) with a forced ventilation unit for supplying CO2-enriched air was developed and applied to commercial production of calla lily (Zantedeschia elliottiana) and china fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantlets. The culture period of calla lily plantlets in the PAM was reduced by 50%, compared with that in a conventional, photomixotrophic micropropagation system (PMM) using small vessels each containing a sugar-containing medium. Percent survival ex vitro of calla lily plantlets from the PAM was 95%, while that from the PMM was 60%. The production cost of calla lily in the PAM was reduced by about 40%, compared with that in the PMM, and the initial investment per plantlet for the PAM was ≈10% lower than that for the PMM. The sales price of ex vitro acclimatized calla lily plantlet was increased by 25% due to its higher quality, compared with plantlets produced in the PMM.

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Mindy L. Bumgarner, K. Francis Salifu, and Douglass F. Jacobs

nutrient stress. Under N limitations, plants allocate more resources to root growth and extension, which enables greater soil exploitation for growth resources. Decreased root dry weight after fertilization has been similarly noted for Chinese fir

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Ting Liao, Guobin Liu, Liqin Guo, Ye Wang, Yanwu Yao, and Jun Cao

characteristics in pine and Chinese fir were studied comprehensively and in detail in gymnosperms in recent years. Morphologic and anatomical observations in the process of ovulate strobilus generation and development were researched in Pinus tabuliformis

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Mindy L. Bumgarner, K. Francis Salifu, Michael V. Mickelbart, and Douglass F. Jacobs

nitrogen nutrition of Chinese fir seedlings exposed to nutrient loading and fertilization Plant Soil 216 83 91 Yelanich, M.V. Biernbaum, J.A. 1994 Fertilizer concentration and leaching affect nitrate-nitrogen leaching from potted poinsettia HortScience 29

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Jun Yuan, Liyuan Huang, Naifu Zhou, Hui Wang, and Genhua Niu

toxicity and the alleviation effects of exogenous calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen on the growth of chinese fir seedlings under aluminum stress Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 45 126 139 Lu, R. 2000 Agricultural soil chemical analysis method. China Agri. Sci

Open access

Wen-hui Li, Jian-rong Feng, Shi-kui Zhang, and Zhang-hu Tang

flesh texture in pear cultivars Acta Hort. Sin. 38 7 8 13 Veitch, N.C. 2004 Structural determinants of plant peroxidase function Phytochem. Rev. 3 3 18 Wang, Y.R. Xing, X.T. Ren, H.Q. Yu, Y. Fei, B.H. 2012a Distribution of lignin in Chinese Fir branches

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Li Liu, Lin Jin, and Qiaosheng Guo

, W. Guo, X. Duan, H. Hu, L. Lei, X. Wei, X. 2018 Soil N/P and C/P ratio regulate the responses of soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities in a long-term nitrogen loaded Chinese fir forest Plant Soil 436 91 107 Sun, J. Hong, Y. Guo

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Hala G. Zahreddine, Daniel K. Struve, and Salma N. Talhouk

. Sci.) 9 75 101 Xu, X. Timmer, V.R. 1999 Growth and nitrogen nutrition of Chinese fir seedlings exposed to nutrient loading and fertilization Plant and Soil 216 83 91 Zahreddine, H

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Yanjiao Zheng, Zaiqiang Yang, Chao Xu, Lin Wang, Haijing Huang, and Shiqiong Yang

endogenous hormone and the adaptability of Chinese fir with high phosphorus-use efficiency to low phosphorus stress Acta Phytoecol. Sin. 43 139 151

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Ute Albrecht, Shahrzad Bodaghi, Bo Meyering, and Kim D. Bowman

maturity of the explants was attributed to differences in morphological traits of field-grown plants in other tree species ( Gupta et al., 1991 ). For example, Chinese fir plants regenerated from explants of juvenile trees were vigorous, whereas plants