In accordance with the currently approved Australian citrus disinfestation protocol for export to Japan, degreened `Eureka' lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] were cold-stored for 2 weeks at 1C. Following cold treatment, fruit were stored at 5C for 3 weeks, then transferred to 20C for an additional week to simulate transportation and handling. Fruit harvested early in the season were more susceptible to chilling injury than fruit harvested later, with 62% having lesions >1 cm2 after 2 weeks at 1C. Most of the chilling injury occurred after subsequent storage (at 5C) rather than immediately after the 1C treatment. Injury was different from surface pitting or oleocellosis, manifesting as large uniform surface lesions 2 to 3 cm in diameter that rapidly discolored following storage at 20C. Although the oil glands were flattened, the collenchyma layer immediately above the oil gland remained intact. Cellular discoloration was localized around the oil gland, possibly indicating a lateral release of oil gland contents. Nondegreened late-season fruit developed substantially lower levels of chilling injury.
Steven J.R. Underhill, Richard L. McLauchlan, and Irving L. Eaks
Martha Edith López-López, José Ángel López-Valenzuela, Francisco Delgado-Vargas, Gabriela López-Angulo, Armando Carrillo-López, Lidia Elena Ayón-Reyna, and Misael Odín Vega-García
and HWT + Ca against CI. Fig. 1. Chilling injury (CI) index in mango cv. Keitt after 10 and 20 d of storage at 5 °C + 7 d at 21 °C ( A ). Symptoms of CI at the end of storage (20 d at 5 °C + 7 d at 21 °C) ( B ). Data are the mean of five replicates
M. Darlene Mercer and Doyle A. Smittle
Abbreviation: CI, chilling injury. 1 Graduate Student. 2 Professor of Horticulture. Supported by state and Hatch Act funds allocated to the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the
Xue Li, Chen Zang, Hang Ge, Jing Zhang, Donald Grierson, Xue-ren Yin, and Kun-song Chen
, I.B. Chen, K.S. 2006b Low temperature conditioning reduces postharvest chilling injury in loquat fruit Postharvest Biol. Technol. 41 252 259 Cai, C. Xu, W.P. Zhang, W.S. Li, X. Ferguson, I.B. Chen, K.S. 2006c Effect of 1-MCP on postharvest quality of
Federica Galli, Douglas D. Archbold, and Kirk W. Pomper
developed internal discoloration, tissue acidification, and off-flavor aroma ( Archbold and Pomper, 2008 ; Galli et al., 2008 ; Koslanund, 2003 ), common symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in many crops ( Saltveit and Morris, 1990 ). The production of
Zhengke Zhang, Yu Zhang, Donald J. Huber, Jingping Rao, Yunjing Sun, and Shanshan Li
Persimmon ( Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu) is a crop of high economic importance in northwest China. The fruit is susceptible to chilling injury (CI) during postharvest storage, developing symptoms at 0 to 4 °C that increase in severity with longer
Ji Heun Hong and Kenneth C. Gross
Experiments were conducted to determine if ethylene influences chilling injury, as measured by percentage of slices exhibiting water-soaked areas in fresh-cut tomato slices of `Mountain Pride' and `Sunbeam' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Ethylene concentration in containers without ventilation significantly increased during storage at 5 °C, whereas little or no accumulation of ethylene occurred in containers with one or six perforations. Chilling injury was greatest for slices in containers with six perforations, compared to slices in containers with one perforation, and was over 13-fold greater than that of slices in control containers with no perforations. An experiment was also performed to investigate the effectiveness of including an ethylene absorbent pad in containers on subsequent ethylene accumulation and chilling injury. While ethylene in the no-pad controls increased continually during storage of both `Mountain Pride' and `Sunbeam' tomatoes at 5 °C under modified atmosphere conditions, no increase in accumulation of ethylene was observed in containers containing ethylene absorbent pads throughout storage. The ethylene absorbent pad treatment resulted in a significantly higher percentage of chilling injury compared with the no-pad control. In studies aimed at inhibiting ethylene production using AVG during storage of slices, the concentration of ethylene in control containers (no AVG) remained at elevated levels throughout storage, compared to containers with slices treated with AVG. Chilling injury in slices treated with AVG was 5-fold greater than that of controls. Further, we tested the effect of ethylene pretreatment of slices on subsequent slice shelf life and quality. In slices treated with ethylene (0, 0.1, 1, or 10 μL·L-1) immediately after slicing, ethylene production in nontreated controls was greater than that of all other ethylene pretreatments. However, pretreatment of slices 3 days after slicing resulted in a different pattern of ethylene production during storage. The rate of ethylene production by slices treated with 1 μL·L-1 ethylene 3 days after slicing was greater during storage than any of the other ethylene treatments. With slices pretreated with ethylene, both immediately and 3 days after slicing, the rate of ethylene production tended to show a negative correlation with chilling injury. Chemical name used: 1-aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG).
Elzbieta U. Kozik and Todd C. Wehner
225 227 Lafuente, M.T. Belver, A. Guye, M.G. Saltveit, M.E. 1991 Effect of temperature conditioning on chilling injury of cucumber cotyledons. Possible role of abscisic acid and heat shock proteins Plant Physiol. 95 443 449 Lasley, S.E. Garber, M
Satoru Kondo, Anan Jitratham, Monrudee Kittikorn, and Sirichai Kanlayanarat
Effects of low temperature and chilling injury (CI) on jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) concentrations were investigated in mangosteens (Garcinia mangostana L.). JA concentrations in the skin of fruit stored at 7 °C increased significantly compared with that of those stored at 13 °C, but JA decreased with the occurrence of visible symptoms of CI. Neither an increase in JA nor CI was detected in pulp of fruit stored at 7 °C. JA concentrations in the skin of fruit treated with spermine (Spm) and stored at 7 °C also increased, but at a lesser extent than in untreated fruit. Thus, the response of JA to low temperatures appears to be limited to chill-susceptible parts of the fruit. The decrease of JA and the onset of CI was delayed in fruit treated with Spm kept at 7 °C compared with untreated control fruit. Exogenous application of n-propyl dihydrojasmonate, which is a jasmonic acid derivative, effectively decreased CI. These results suggest that low temperature-induced JA accumulation may play a protective role against CI. The application of jasmonates may increase chill-resistance in fruit.
Roy E. McDonald, T. Gregory McCollum, and Harold E. Nordby
Abbreviations: CI, chilling injury; R, resistance. We thank Roxanne Wiseman for competent technical assistance during the course of this work. Mention of a trademark, warranty, proprietary product, or vendor does not constitute a guarantee by the U