usually influenced by chilling in winter ( Fuchigami et al., 1982 ; Perry, 1971 ; Wareing, 1956 ). Temperature and duration of chilling are key components of satisfying chilling requirements which are critical to promote vegetative growth and budbreak
Tingting Zhao, Dawei Li, Lulu Li, Fei Han, Xiaoli Liu, Peng Zhang, Meiyan Chen, and Caihong Zhong
Shawn A. Mehlenbacher
Chilling requirements of 44 genotypes of Corylus avellana L. were estimated by cutting shoots in the field at weekly intervals and forcing them in a warm greenhouse for four weeks. The chilling requirements of catkins, female flowers, and leaf buds were assumed to have been met when development occurred on more than half of the respective plant parts. Chilling requirements were lowest for catkins and highest for leaf buds, and ranged from <100 to 860 hours for catkins, 290-1550 hours for female flowers, and 365-1395 hours for leaf buds. The lowest chilling requirements were observed for the leading cultivars of Turkey and southern Italy. The yellow-leafed ornamental C. avellana var. aure a had very high chilling requirements for all plant parts.
Clint Wall, William Dozier, Robert C. Ebel, Bryan Wilkins, Floyd Woods, and Wheeler Foshee III
of growth inhibition of kiwi is apparently in the bud scales because their removal was shown to promote budbreak ( Lionakis and Schwabe, 1984 ). Very little is known concerning the chilling requirement of different kiwi species and cultivars
Chrislyn A. Drake and John R. Clark
Little research has been done to determine the chilling requirement for southern blackberry cultivars. However, field observations from areas where low amounts of chilling occur indicate that `Navaho' requires more hours of chilling than does `Arapaho'. The objective of the study was to determine a method for measuring chilling requirement using whole plants of two blackberry cultivars, Arapaho and Navaho. One-year-old bare-root plants of `Arapaho' and `Navaho' were field-dug and placed in a cold chamber at 3 °C. Ten single-plant replications of each cultivar were removed at 100-hour intervals up to 1000 hours. The plants were then potted and placed in a greenhouse (daily minimum temperature 15 °C) in a completely randomized design. Budbreak was recorded on a weekly basis. Data for budbreak was analyzed as a two-factor factorial (two cultivars and 10 chilling treatments) by SAS and means separated by lsd (P = 0.05). Data indicated that the chilling requirement for `Arapaho' is between 400 and 500 hours. This is evident as a 6-fold increase, which was the largest increase between two chilling treatments, occurred between 400 and 500 hours. For `Navaho', the largest increase (also 6-fold) occurred between 800 and 900 hours, which indicated a chilling requirement for `Navaho' of 800 to 900 hours. These data support previous observations and indicate the method used was successful in determining chilling requirement for blackberries.
Dr. John R. Clark and P. Manjula Carter
The chilling requirements of the University of Arkansas blackberry cultivars Apache, Ouachita, and Prime-Jim*, and the primocane-fruiting selections APF-25, APF-27, APF-40, APF-42, APF-44, APF-46, APF-52, and APF-53 were investigated using stem cuttings from field-grown plants. A biophenometer was used to measure chilling (hours below 7 °C) in the field and 12-node cuttings of lateral shoots were taken from the cultivars every 100 hours up to 1000 hours below 7 °C. However, only 500 chilling hours had occurred at the time of this writing, and the response of budbreak to higher chilling levels could not be reported. The cuttings were placed in a mistchamber in the greenhouse with a daylength of 16 hours and air temperature of 26–29 °C. Percent budbreak was measured weekly. The cultivar × chilling interaction was significant (P = 0.05). `Apache' and `Ouachita' showed little or no budbreak up to 500 h, indicating a higher chilling requirement. The chilling requirement of Prime-Jim was determined to be between 300 h and 400 h, and that of the APF selections appeared to be between 300 h and 500 h. The chilling requirement of APF-53 could not be determined since budbreak was consistent at all levels of chilling up to 500 h. In general, the primocane-fruiting genotypes appeared to require less chilling than floricane-fruiting `Apache' and `Ouachita', and they would therefore be more suitable for low-chill locations.
Iwan F. Labuschagné, J.H. Louw, Karin Schmidt, and Annalene Sadie
Genetic variation in chilling requirement was investigated over three growth periods using clonal progenies of six apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] families derived from crosses of high and low chill requiring cultivars. Two quantitative measurements related to chilling requirement, viz., the time of initial budbreak (vegetative and reproductive) and the number of breaking buds over a specified time interval, were used as evaluation criteria. Genetic and environmental variances of the traits are presented as intra-class correlation coefficients for clones within and between families. For budbreak time, reproductive and vegetative, broad-sense heritability averaged around 75% and 69% respectively, indicating a high degree of genetic determination in this material. For budbreak number, moderate to low genetic determination was found with broad-sense heritabilities around 30%. Estimates of genetic components of variance between families were generally very low in comparison to the variance within families and predict potentially favorable responses to truncation selection on the traits within these progeny groups. Analysis of the data showed that distribution of budbreak time is typical of quantitative traits with means distributed closely around midparent values. Skewed distributions towards low budbreak number were obtained in varying degrees in all families.
P. Manjula Carter and John R. Clark
Chilling requirement, (the number of hours below 7 °C necessary to break dormancy) has been shown to vary with genotype in blackberry (Rubus subgenus Rubus). Previous work has demonstrated that the chilling requirement of field-grown plants could be accurately determined from stem cuttings of lateral shoots taken at 100-hour intervals of chilling up to 1000 hours, by placing them in a mist chamber maintained at 26 °C with a daylength of 16 hours, and observing budbreak over a period of 5 weeks. This technique has previously demonstrated clear differences in the chilling requirements of thorny and thornless floricane-fruiting cultivars. In the current study, a comparison of floricane-fruiting and primocane-fruiting blackberries using the stem-cutting technique illustrated a lower chilling requirement associated with the primocane-fruiting trait. The use of the stem-cutting technique can be a simple and effective tool for assessing blackberry adaptation to different hardiness zones.
D. Gerasopoulos and D.G. Richardson
`D'Anjou' pear (Pyrus communis L.) trees were sprayed with zero or 32.3 mm CaCl2 during fruit development at 55, 86, 125, and 137 d from full bloom and harvested at 85% (immature), 100% (mature), and 110% (overmature) maturity stages. The fruit were stored in air at –1 °C for several periods to determine the effect of CaCl2 treatments on chilling requirement to accomplish ripening during 11 d at 20 °C. Immature or mature unsprayed fruit required 55 d, while the overmature fruit required 40 d at –1 °C to gain the capacity to produce ethylene during ripening at 20 °C. Calcium sprays increased flesh firmness at harvest by 15 N, fruit Ca concentrations by an average of 0.01 mg·g-1, fresh mass basis, and the chilling requirements by at least 15 d. Unsprayed immature fruit contained more Ca than the sprayed mature or overmature fruit, but their chilling requirement was similar. These results suggest that high Ca concentrations may increase the chilling requirement of `d'Anjou' pears in a developmentally related manner.
P.G. Gibson and G.L. Reighard
Peach trees exposed to `Ta Tao' vegetative chip bud grafts have been shown to have physiological changes that include bloom delay, delayed maturity, reduced shoot vigor, and early autumn defoliation. `Ta Tao' is known to be infected with the graft transmissible agent Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid (PLMVd). PLMVd has been associated with bloom delay and reduced shoot vigor. `Coronet' peach trees planted in a high-density, Y-trained orchard system were treated with vegetative chip buds from `Ta Tao'. Transmission of PLMVd was confirmed in the treated trees by cRNA probe hybridization. A shoot forcing study was set up to determine if exposure to `Ta Tao' would alter the chilling requirement of `Coronet' peach. Terminal fruiting shoots were collected periodically during the dormant season from 8 Jan. 1999 to 19 Feb. 1999, which represented a range of chill hour accumulation from 574 to 927, respectively. Shoots were forced in a greenhouse, and chilling requirement was considered complete when 50% of the flowers opened. Chilling requirement was not changed by exposure to `Ta Tao' chip buds. The number of days required for shoots to bloom was significantly and consistently longer for the `Ta Tao' treated trees. The number of shoots responding to forcing conditions was significantly less in the treated trees. The data suggest that the graft transmissible effects from `Ta Tao' buds increased the growing degree hours required for `Coronet' leaf and flower bud emergence after rest completion under greenhouse forcing conditions.
Philip G. Gibson and Gregory L. Reighard
Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Peach Group)] trees bloom in response to chilling and postrest heat accumulation. The peach cultivar Coronet exposed to a graft-transmissible, infectious agent known as peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) blooms at a different time than noninoculated trees of the same cultivar. To determine if chilling requirements differed between trees inoculated with PLMVd and noninoculated controls, fruiting shoots collected from the orchard and artificially chilled containerized trees were forced in a greenhouse. Additional artificially chilled containerized trees were forced under constant temperatures in growth chambers to determine if postrest heat accumulation requirements differed. There was no difference in the chilling requirement of the fruiting shoots collected from the field although the shoots exposed to PLMVd had a delayed response and fewer responded to greenhouse forcing conditions. The containerized trees also showed no differences in chilling requirements during winter 1999 or 2000. Trees inoculated with PLMVd had a significant delay in bloom. Growth chamber data revealed a significantly higher base temperature for heat accumulation in the PLMVd inoculated trees.