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Joseph Masabni, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, and Priscilla Del Valle

temperatures for tomato fruit set are from 18.5 to 26.5 °C ( LeBoeuf, 2004 ). Chili pepper is primarily cultivated in warm and semiarid regions where high irradiance and temperatures during summer growing seasons are common ( Dorji et al., 2005 ). Therefore

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Derek W. Barchenger, Robert A. Clark III, Paul A. Gniffke, Dolores R. Ledesma, Shih-wen Lin, Peter Hanson, and Sanjeet Kumar

as high disease incidence (resulting in missing data points), on seven locations were sufficient to analyze traits of interest for G × E interaction and stability analysis. Table 1. Summary of International Chili Pepper Nursery 15 (ICPN15) lines

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Baniekal Hiremath Gangadhar, Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Gobinath Pandian, and Se Won Park

temperature on capsaicinoid accumulation in chili ( Murakami et al., 2006 ), but no extensive studies have been carried out on the effect of LEDs on chili pepper. The present study was carried out to understand the effect of different LEDs (blue, red, red plus

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Liliana S. Muñoz-Ramírez, Laura P. Peña-Yam, Susana A. Avilés-Viñas, Adriana Canto-Flick, Adolfo A. Guzmán-Antonio, and Nancy Santana-Buzzy

Chili peppers form part of the identity and culture of Mexico. They belong to the genus Capsicum , which originated in America, from Mexico to South America. The word chili derives from the náhuatl chilli or xilli , and in Mexico it is used to

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Magaji G. Usman, Mohd Y. Rafii, Mohd Razi Ismail, Mohammad Abdul Malek, and Mohammad Abdul Latif

Chili pepper is widely cultivated, primarily as a spice crop ( Dahal et al., 2006 ). It also is cultivated for fresh vegetable ( Ajjapplavara et al., 2010 ) and postharvest processing markets ( Acedo, 2010 ). In other words, some peppers are grown

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Tulsi Gurung, Suchila Techawongstien, Bhalang Suriharn, and Sungcom Techawongstien

Chili pepper belongs to genus Capsicum in the Solanaceae family, the only plant genus known to produce capsaicinoids. Capsaicinoids are acid amides of vanillylamine and C 9 to C 11 branched-chain fatty acids and are responsible for pungency of

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Alfredo Reyes-Tena, Arturo Castro-Rocha, Gerardo Rodríguez-Alvarado, Gerardo Vázquez-Marrufo, Martha Elena Pedraza-Santos, Kurt Lamour, John Larsen, and Sylvia Patricia Fernández-Pavía

The oomycete Phytophthora capsici is highly destructive to vegetable species in the Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Fabaceae families ( Kamoun et al., 2015 ). Worldwide, it is the main pathogen limiting chili pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) production

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Frank Williams, Alexis Barbarin, Donald Hauber, and Harish Ratnayaka

Drought is a major constraint to chili production in a variety of cropping systems worldwide. A greenhouse study was conducted to understand mechanisms underlying drought acclimation of leaf gas exchange in two popular chili cultivars, `Big Chili' and `Jalapeno'. Unstressed `Big Chili' had 27% greater net photosynthesis (P net), 60% higher stomatal conductance (g w), and 18% higher transpiration (E), but only 3% greater intercellular CO2 concentration (C i) than `Jalapeno'. Light compensation point was 43.3 and 31.6 μmol·m-2·s-1 in `Big Chili' and `Jalapeno', respectively, although light-saturated assimilation (A max) and photosystem II efficiency (F' v/F' m) were the same in the two cultivars. Maximum rubisco-mediated carboxylation, V cmax, was 66.3 and 69.1 μmol·m-2·s-1 in `Big Chili' and `Jalapeno', respectively. During drought, 50% of plants wilted to zero P net in 5 days in `Big Chili', and 7 days in `Jalapeno'. However, at wilting, relative water content was the same at 66%, with 97% less g w than unstressed plants, in each cultivar. `Jalapeno' had 9% greater F' v/F' m than `Big Chili', at wilting. Four days after rewatering, P net, g w and F' v/F' m were 27%, 47%, and 8% less in `Big Chili', but only 11%, 19%, and 4% less in `Jalapeno', than unstressed plants, respectively. `Jalapeno' shows greater acclimation of gas exchange to drought than `Big Chili' through rapid recovery of photosystem II, carbon assimilation and stomatal activity.

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Everardo Zamora, Santiago Ayala, Cosme Guerrero, Damián Martínez, and Francisco Rivas

The piquin chili (Capsicum annuum L.), a type of high-pungency small-ball chili fruit, is traditional among Sonoran people and is consumed as paprika and dry fruit in some regional dishes. Also, the high prices obtained in domestic and oversea markets every year, mainly through piquin dry fruit sales, have encouraged this small informal and seasonal industry. In some Sonoran Mountain ranges, where piquin chili plants grow wild, a latent, informal industry has been maintained by people who harvest piquin chilies as fresh and dry fruits for sale. Enough precipitation, good environment conservation, and other conditions maintain the natural preservation of this chili plant, so that the piquin chili industry is maintained without cultivation, and has become a natural and ecological chili industry. During harvest time (September through November), low-income people harvest by hand dry piquin chili fruits for sale in several cities in Sonora. After harvesting, fresh red piquin chili fruits must be dried over several days. The fruit is spread out over a fabric during sunny days and removed at nights, and the small piquin red fruits dry in just a few days. Usually dry piquin chili presentations are sold in liter (0.25-lb) or kilogram (2-lb) lots. Throughout the 2005 dry piquin chili harvesting season, sales reached prices close to $18 and $82 (U.S. dollars) per liter or kilogram, respectively. Although the dry piquin chili is exported to the United States, fresh fruit sales are still limited to the domestic Sonoran market. The piquin chili harvesting season offers temporary employment and represents, in part, an important source of family income.

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Richard L. Fery and Howard F. Harrison Jr.

Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the genetic relationship between bentazon tolerance exhibited by the pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars Bohemian Chili and Santaka, and to evaluate the importance of cytoplasmic factors in expression of the tolerance in `Bohemian Chili.' Greenhouse evaluation of parental and F2 populations of the cross `Santaka' × `Bohemian Chili' indicated that the major dominant gene conditioning bentazon tolerance in `Bohemian Chili' is probably the Bzt gene that conditions bentazon tolerance in `Santaka' or a gene closely linked to the Bzt locus. Field evaluation of F1 and F2 progeny populations of the cross `Bohemian Chili' × `Sweet Banana' in both `Bohemian Chili' and `Sweet Banana' cytoplasms demonstrated that cytoplasmic factors do not affect the expression of the bentazon tolerance gene in `Bohemian Chili.' We conclude that `Santaka' and `Bohemian Chili' are equally satisfactory sources of a bentazon tolerance gene for use in pepper breeding programs. Chemical name used: 3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon).