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Tanya J. Hall, Roberto G. Lopez, Maria I. Marshall, and Jennifer H. Dennis

can be enhanced through “green label” flower certification programs, establishing standards for the reduction of pesticides and other chemicals, conservation of natural resources, worker safety, and labor rights ( Stewart, 2007 ). In recent years

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Mark e. Miller

Consumers of horticultural services deserve a standard to insure that practicing horticulturist have the necessary education, experience and continuing education to solve wide ranging problems from production horticulture to landscape management in an effective and environmentally conscious manner. A Certified Professional Sub-Board was established as a part of the American Registry of Certified Professionals in Agronomy, Crops, and Soils (ARCPACS) in November 1991. The ASHS support of certification of practicing horticulturist will primarily benefit those holding BS degrees. Forty percent of the American Society of Agronomy (ASA) 12,500 members highest earned degrees are BS and/or MS. By contrast only 5% of the 5,000 ASHS members are at the BS and/or MS levels. It is evident that ASA has been more perceptive of the needs of their undergraduate degree holders than ASHS. With the advent of CPH we can now begin to meet the needs of our BS and/or MS degree holders. Economic analysis reveals certification is beneficial to both the horticulturist and consumers.

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Florence A. Becot, Virginia Nickerson, David S. Conner, and Jane M. Kolodinsky

and in-depth interviews were used to answer the following research questions: 1) how much does USDA GAPs certification cost farmers?, 2) how much labor is needed for GAPs certification?, and 3) how much would it cost to certify all the farms in Vermont

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Joyce L. Merritt, Ellen Dickstein, Robert S. Johnson, Michael Ward, Robert J. Balaam, Carrie L. Harmon, Philip F. Harmon, G. Shad Ali, Aaron J. Palmateer, Timothy Schubert, and Ariena H.C. van Bruggen

considerable harm to the potato industry in the United States ( Champoiseau et al., 2009 ). The history of R3B2 introductions into the United States provides an excellent example of the necessity of inspection and certification programs for the ornamental

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Jennifer H. Dennis, Roberto G. Lopez, Bridget K. Behe, Charles R. Hall, Chengyan Yue, and Benjamin L. Campbell

encouraged discussions about sustainable production and certification in the floriculture industry ( Krug et al., 2008 ; Stewart, 2007 ). The goal of sustainable production is to reduce environmental degradation, maintain agricultural productivity, promote

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Kynda R. Curtis, Tatiana Drugova, Trevor Knudsen, Jennifer Reeve, and Ruby Ward

represents a set of production practices that are considered environmentally friendly on their own, such as pesticide-free or free of synthetic herbicides. To avoid strict organic certification and associated costs, growers may choose to adopt some of the

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Arturo García, Xicotencatl Morentín, and J. Farias-Larios

Organic production is a manner of food production whereby people relate to nature to produce healthy food in a sustainable way. Access to the organic food market requires a guarantee that the product complies with the standards and principles established by the moral and legal authorities of organic production. In Latin America, Mexico is the greatest exporter of organic products, mainly coffee. Sales are estimated at nearly 500 million dollars, and certified field surface is 15,000 ha. The objective of this work is to show the certification process of organic production carried at Colima state. The University of Colima Organic Production Certifying Committee (CUCEPRO) is an organic production certification agency, a nonprofit organization, operating since 1993. Furthermore, CUCEPRO promotes organic production, a viable alternative and offer important information on the basic principles of organic production, the procedures which producers need to go through to have their product certified organic. CUCEPRO took part in the determination of the Mexican Quality Control Norms NOM-037-FITO-1995. This agency is constituted by Univ. of Colima teachers and researchers with great expertise on the different areas and processes of organic production. Certification takes between one and 2.5 months depending on distance, kinds of analyses, and seal production and issuing. In the last years CUCEPRO has certified more 3000 hectares of products such as coffee, sesame seed, banana, and mango, as well as honey, compost, and biological pesticides. Certification demand steadily increased due to reliability and confidence on CUCEPRO and to increased acceptance of organic products on the other.

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Karen Stoelzle Midden, Paul Henry, and Amy Boren

Online courses are easily accessible and have the potential to attract and recruit a diversity of students. The instructors [also the principal investigators (PIs)] of an online certificate program in landscape horticulture have completed the first of a 3-year project in an effort to provide landscape horticulture courses, including an option for a certificate, to traditional and nontraditional students. The certification, consisting of 20 credit hours, will be the first of its type in Illinois offered by an institution of higher education. The program is aimed toward traditional college students who may need additional college credit, and nontraditional students who are pursuing certification out of interest in career goals or needing continuing education. The Chicago Botanic Garden, a cooperator in this project, has been a driving force for creation of this program and feels that there is a substantial demand among its clientele. It is being funded by the SIUC Office of the Provost and Vice Chancellor Distance Learning Grant. Year one of this project focused on review and revision of curriculum material of six existing courses taught by the PIs. The PIs are working closely with the university's instructional support for the courses to be delivered by WebCT. To date, the “Appreciation of Landscape Design” course has received the most emphasis in the conversion. This poster session will summarize the project to date and projected benefits of this online program.

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Douglas C. Sanders, Dennis J. Osborne, Mary M. Peet, John M. Dole, and Julia L. Kornegay

Many potential students, because of distance from the university campus and/or job requirements, cannot take traditional courses on-campus. This group of learners is “place-bound”—a group of learners who may be employed full-time, most likely married with job responsibilities and/or other situations demanding most of their attention. The Horticultural Science Department and Graduate School at N.C. State University are addressing place-bound limitations in several ways, including the creation and offering of a Graduate Certificate Program in Horticultural Science via distance education (DE). By using DE, high demand, low-seat-available classes can offer additional enrollment for credit. Second, courses can be offered asynchronously or with alternative delivery methods. Also, courses offered collaboratively among institutions can generate a level of interest and enthusiasm that may not exist for “home-grown” courses. Such efforts as these promise to help meet continuing education demands of “non-traditional” students. These include Cooperative Extension's more than 120 Horticultural Crops Extension Agents (“field faculty”) and over 300 other field faculty whose interests include horticultural topics.

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Charles A. Powell, Robert R. Pelosi, and Phyllis A. Rundell

None of 4190 sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] nursery trees of `Hamlin', `Midsweet', `Navel', and `Valencia' sampled from five Florida citrus nurseries were infected with a decline-inducing isolate of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) as judged by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using isolate-specific monoclonal antibodies. Two of the nurseries had a relatively high level of infection (37% to 100% of composite samples containing tissue from 10 trees) with nondecline-inducing (mild) isolates of CTV, depending on the cultivar. Three of the nurseries had a lower incidence of mild CTV (0% to 22% of 10 tree composite samples). No nursery was CTV-free. ELISA of individual trees used as budwood sources by the nurseries revealed that one tree out of 260 tested contained decline-inducing CTV, and 83 contained mild CTV. These results suggest that the budwood certification program adopted in 1997 has virtually eliminated decline-inducing CTV from commercial budwood supplies.