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Aaron Heinrich, Richard Smith and Michael Cahn

, farmers almost exclusively grow cereal rye as a winter cover crop because of the low seed cost and it does not set seed too early in the growth cycle, eliminating the potential for it to become a weed hazard. In this region, a full-season cereal rye cover

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Jennifer Tillman, Ajay Nair, Mark Gleason and Jean Batzer

with conventional tillage ( Bottenberg et al., 1997 ; Hoyt et al., 1994 ). One method of reduced tillage involves seeding a cover crop in the fall, most commonly cereal rye, and allowing it to reach anthesis in the spring. A roller crimper is then used

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Guangyao Wang and Mathieu Ngouajio

-till wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cover significantly reduced incidence of Phytophthora capsici on bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) because the residue provides an effective barrier to inoculum dispersal. Winter annual cover crops, like cereal rye

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Jennifer Tillman, Ajay Nair, Mark Gleason and Jean Batzer

modifications that come along with rowcover use. We compared two production systems [conventional tillage with black plastic mulch (PL) and strip tillage into rolled cereal rye (ST)] with and without the use of rowcovers in organically and conventionally managed

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Dana Jokela and Ajay Nair

system with rolled and crimped cereal rye has been shown to promote soil health, resulting in significant increases in soil aggregate stability, potentially mineralizable N, active soil carbon (C), and microbial activity when compared with a

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John Z. Burket, Delbert D. Hemphill and Richard P. Dick

Cover crops hold potential to improve soil quality, to recover residual fertilizer N in the soil after a summer crop that otherwise might leach to the groundwater, and to be a source of N for subsequently planted vegetable crops. The objective of this 5-year study was to determine the N uptake by winter cover crops and its effect on summer vegetable productivity. Winter cover crops [red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), cereal rye (Secale cereale L. var. Wheeler), a cereal rye/Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) mix, or a winter fallow control] were in a rotation with alternate years of sweet corn (Zea mays L. cv. Jubilee) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Botrytis Group cv. Gem). The subplots were N rate (zero, intermediate, and as recommended for vegetable crop). Summer relay plantings of red clover or cereal rye were also used to gain early establishment of the cover crop. Cereal rye cover crops recovered residual fertilizer N at an average of 40 kg·ha-1 following the recommended N rates, but after 5 years of cropping, there was no evidence that the N conserved by the cereal rye cover crop would permit a reduction in inorganic N inputs to maintain yields. Intermediate rates of N applied to summer crops in combination with winter cover crops containing legumes produced vegetable yields similar to those with recommended rates of N in combination with winter fallow or cereal rye cover crops. There was a consistent trend (P < 0.12) for cereal rye cover crops to cause a small decrease in broccoli yields as compared to winter fallow.

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N.M. Madden, J.P. Mitchell, W.T. Lanini, M.D. Cahn, E.V. Herrero, S. Park, S.R. Temple and M. Van Horn

Field experiments were conducted in 2000 and 2001 in Meridian, Calif. to evaluate the effects of cover crop mixtures and reduced tillage on yield, soil nitrogen (N), weed growth, and soil moisture content in organic processing tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production. The trial was set up as a randomized complete-block design with eight treatments consisting of a 2 × 3 (cover crop × tillage) factorial design, a fallow control (F) and a single strip-till (ST) treatment. Cover crop mixtures were either legumes (L), common vetch (Vicia sativa), field pea (Pisum sativum) and bell bean (Vicia faba), or those legumes with grasses (GL), annual ryegrass/triticale (Lolium multiflorum/xTriticosecale) in 2000; cereal rye (Secale cereale)/triticale in 2001. Tillage treatments included an incorporation of the cover crop at planting (IP), a delayed incorporation (DI) (17 to 19 days after planting), and no-till (NT). Due to regrowth of the annual ryegrass in 2000, tomato fruit yields in 2000 were reduced by 50% to 97% within all GL treatments. However, regrowth of the cover crop was not a problem in 2001 and yields were not different among treatments. Total percent weed cover was 1.6 to 12.5 times higher in NT than IP treatments in 2000 and 2.4 to 7.4 times higher in 2001 as weed pressure was mainly affected by tillage practices and less by cover crop type. In 2000, available soil N was 1.7 to 9.4 times higher in L than GL treatments and was significantly influenced by tillage, but there were no treatment effects in 2001 due to a 60% reduction in weed pressure and minimal or no cover crop regrowth. Soil moisture content did not differ between treatments in either year. These results demonstrate the importance of appropriate selection and termination of cover crops for their successful adoption in organic conservation tillage systems.

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D. Grant McCarty II, Sarah E. Eichler Inwood, Bonnie H. Ownley, Carl E. Sams, Annette L. Wszelaki and David M. Butler

treatment with a cereal rye ( Secale cereale L., variety not stated) cover crop with a lower rate of dried molasses added at cover crop incorporation; and 7) ASD treatment with a cereal rye cover crop seeded at the same rate as in Treatment 6 with no

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Lavesta C. Hand, Wheeler G. Foshee III, Tyler A. Monday, Daniel E. Wells and Dennis P. Delaney

and Mohler, 1993 ). Therefore, the cover crops can alter the microenvironment around the seed, enough to reduce or delay the weed emergence ( Teasdale and Mohler, 1993 ). Because of its high biomass production and allelopathic compounds, cereal rye is

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Maren J. Mochizuki, Anusuya Rangarajan, Robin R. Bellinder, Harold M. van Es and Thomas Björkman

stability, reduce compaction, and increase soil water content, and natural decomposition of the mulch would eliminate negative impacts on cabbage growth and yield. Materials and Methods Treatments and experimental design. Cereal rye was seeded