and distort fruit, generally referred to as catfacing insects ( Meagher et al., 1987 ; Meagher and Meyer, 1990 ; Mitchem, 2005 ). Orchard floor management strategies for peach production include establishing a cover crop or a permanent sod in the row
Connie L. Fisk, Michael L. Parker, and Wayne Mitchem
H.C. Wien and A.D. Turner
In a preliminary experiment, tomatoes were induced to catface by a temperature treatment of 2 weeks at 16/10C (day/night), starting at the 6-leaf stage. Fruits of the second and third, but not the first cluster showed catface symptoms. If catfacing induction could be further delayed by growing transplants in a non-inducing environment until most flower primordia have been initiated, plants might escape the disorder. In 2 field trials, plants were greenhouse-grown for 33, 47, or 61 days, and induced to catface by a GA3 foliar spray (15 ul·1-1) at transplanting. Catfacing was significantly increased by GA, sprays (23 vs 11% of all fruits in 1989, 22 vs 8% in 1990). In both years, there was a highly significant interaction between plant age and catfacing incidence, with high levels for young and medium-aged, but lower levels for old GA-treated transplants. Marketable yields were highest for youngest and medium-aged plants in 1989 and 1990, respectively. Old plants were checked in growth after transplanting and produced lowest yields in both years. Avoiding catfacing by use of old transplants thus has doubtful practical value.
H.C. Wien and A.D. Turner
When GA3 foliar sprays are applied to tomatoes at transplanting (7.5 ppm, twice, one week apart) the lowest main stem clusters bear fruits which have large blossom-end scars (catfacing). Later flowering clusters are less affected as long as the plants are being grown under normal temperature conditions. Preliminary trials (Wien and Zhang, Hort Sci. 26:583-585, 1991) indicated that cultivar differences in catfacing susceptibility were reflected in GA3-induced catfacing differences. In 1990 and 1991, field trials were conducted in Freeville, N.Y. to compare the catfacing susceptibility of 14 and 18 fresh tomato cultivars respectively, using GA3 treatment. Catfacing was measured by counting the percentage of fruit on the third main stem, primary branch and two basal clusters that had blossom scars longer than 1 cm. Of the 14 cultivars common to both seasons, Valerie, Sunrise and Basketvee were least affected by catfacing in both control and GA3-treated plots, and Starfire, New Yorker and Olympic were most catfaced. GA3 spray shows promise for selecting catfacing-susceptible tomato cultivars.
H.C. Wien and Y. Zhang
Catfacing of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit describes the enlarged blossom-end scar and ridged, flattened or irregular fruit shape often found on plants subjected to low temperature during ovary development. Experiments were conducted to determine if GA3 foliar sprays could be used as a screening tool for catfacing. Concentrations of 5 to 50 μM of GA3, applied once at transplanting, significantly increased catfacing incidence on the susceptible `Revolution', whereas the resistant `Valerie' was less affected. Two applications 8 days apart extended symptoms to later clusters formed on branches and may be useful for screening cultivars of a wide range of earliness. Plant apex removal may also be possible as a fruit catfacing screening tool. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).
H.C. Wien and A.D. Turner
The blossom-end scarring of tomato fruit caused by exposure of the plant to cool weather during ovary formation, commonly termed catfacing, can also be induced by GA3 foliar sprays. To determine if GA3 treatment could serve as a cultivar screening tool to identify lines susceptible to the disorder, we compared the catfacing incidence in 14 fresh-market tomato cultivars after GAS sprays and in nontreated controls in two field experiments. In 1 year, removal of the plant's apex was also imposed. GA3 sprays (22 μm twice, applied 1 week apart to tomato seedlings ≈5 weeks old) increased catfacing incidence in both years and accentuated cultivar differences in the disorder. Topping did not increase catfacing significantly. The cultivars Valerie, Sunrise, and Basketvee were least affected by catfacing in the experiments, while `Starfire', `New Yorker', and `Olympic' had the highest percentage of catfaced fruit. The GA3 screening method shows promise for identifying cultivar differences in susceptibility to blossom-end scarring. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).
H.C. Wien and A.D. Turner
Tomato plants were induced to produce fruit with abnormally large blossom-end scars (catfaces) by exposing them to 16/10C (day/night) for 2 weeks, starting at the six-leaf stage. Fruit of the second and third, but not the first, cluster showed catface symptoms. To identify the initial period of susceptibility to catfacing, `Revolution' tomatoes were greenhouse-grown for 34,48, or 62 days and induced to catface by a gibberellic acid (GA) foliar spray (43 μM) when transplanted to the field. Catfacing was significantly increased by GA sprays (23% vs. 11% of all fruit in 1989, 22% vs. 8% in 1990). There was a highly significant interaction between plant age and catfacing, with high levels for young and medium-aged, but lower levels for old GA3-treated transplants. The early-maturing `Revolution' is susceptible to catfacing from ≈25 to 60 days after sowing. Marketable yields were highest for young and medium-aged plants in 1989 and 1990, respectively. Old plants were checked in growth after being transplanted and produced lowest yields. Avoiding catfacing by using old transplants has doubtful practical value.
Steven T. Koike, Miguel S. Vilchez, and Albert O. Paulus
California has an extensive strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa L.) industry that has built its reputation on the production of large volumes of fruit that are evenly and fully developed. While some fruit deformity occurs every year, in various counties during the 1997-2000 seasons there were higher than usual numbers of uneven or “catfaced” strawberry fruit. It was thought that the presence of the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) G.A. De Vries on flower anthers may have interfered with pollination and increased cull rates. We collected and incubated flower anthers to determine the fungal populations on such tissue and found that C. cladosporioides accounted for the majority of the culturable fungal colonies present. However, while 100% of a flower's anthers were colonized with C. cladosporioides after spray inoculations, the incidence and severity of malformed fruit were not significantly different from untreated flowers. Physically removing all anthers shortly after anthesis likewise did not result in significant differences in fruit quality when compared to untreated control flowers. We conclude that C. cladosporioides colonization of flower anthers has a minimal impact on fruit quality under most field conditions.
J.H.M. Barten, J.W. Scott, N. Kedar, and Y. Elkind
To identify the stage of flower development sensitive to low temperature-induced rough blossom-end scarring (RBS) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), short-term low-temperature treatments (1, 3, and 5 days continuously at 10C or 6, 9, and 12 days at 18/10C day/night) were applied to young, flowering plants and to plants at the six-leaf stage. Flowers were tagged at anthesis over 4 weeks and the growth stage of the flowers at the beginning of the treatments was determined in days relative to anthesis. The blossom-end scar index (BSI), a measure for blossom-end scar size relative to fruit size, and number of locules were recorded for mature fruits. In three experiments, 5 days at 10C or 6 days at 18/10C, applied during early flower differentiation, induced RBS in mature fruits. For each of the three cultivars tested `Horizon', Waker', and `Solar Set'), flower buds were most sensitive from 26 to 19 days before anthesis. In this experiment, RBS induction was not caused by an increase in the average number of locules per fruit. A short period of sensitivity during very early flower development explains the variation in RBS among seasons and within plants encountered in field situations. This study also presents a standard induction technique for further investigation of physiological and morphological backgrounds of the disorder and possible genotype screening.
Suzanne O’Connell, Cary Rivard, Mary M. Peet, Chris Harlow, and Frank Louws
-marketable fruit was sorted into different categories based on types of defect including: cat-facing, blossom end rot, insect damage, fruit cracking, TSWV, and “other.” The number of individual tomatoes as well as the total weight of fruit for each category was
Monica Ozores-Hampton, Philip A. Stansly, and Eugene McAvoy
were recorded and categorized based on the incidence of BES, zipper and catface (Zip/Catf), sunscald and yellow shoulders (SS/YS), off-shape fruit (OS), radial and concentric cracking (CRK), and gray wall as described by Gilreath et al. (2000) . After