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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

fresh herbage is ≈0.15% to 0.3% and depends on many factors. For example, in studies conducted in Wyoming, the oil content of fresh spearmint varied from 0.14% to 0.22% with carvone concentration in the oil ranging between 42% and 75% depending on the

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Charles L. Cantrell, Tess Astatkie and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

demonstrated that spearmint essential oil or carvone (the major essential oil constituent) possesses antimicrobial properties ( Aggarwal et al., 2002 ; de Carvalho and Da Fonseca, 2006 ; Chao et al., 2000 ; Kanatt et al., 2008 ; Rafii and Shahverdi, 2007

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

crop for northern Wyoming at 1170 m a.s.l. elevation ( Zheljazkov et al., 2012a ). Developing means for increased biomass and oil yields and increased concentrations of carvone, the main essential oil constituent of ‘Native’ spearmint, would be

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Steven F. Vaughn, Mark A. Berhow and Brent Tisserat

( PPF ) of 650 μmol·m −2. s −1 . Carvone analysis. Levels of the secondary compound (−)-carvone, the dominant component of spearmint oil, were analyzed in treated spearmint plants. (−)-Carvone concentrations have been previously shown to be

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Brent Tisseret* and Steven Vaughn

The influence of altering the physical environment on the growth (fresh weight), morphogenesis (leaf, root, and shoot numbers) and secondary metabolism (i.e., volatile monoterpene, and carvone) of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) shoots cultured on MS medium was studied. The type of physical support (e.g., agar, liquid, platforms, or glass supports) using Magenta vessels altered growth and morphogenesis. Mint shoots grown on liquid produced 4-x fold more fresh weight than on agar. Carvone levels were unaffected physical supports. Increasing the frequency of media replacement significantly increased growth without altering carvone. Vessel size influence was tested by culturing shoots on culture tubes, Magenta vessels and ½-gal. jars. Positive correlations occurred between vessel capacity and culture growth, morphogenesis and carvone levels. A comparative study testing several spearmint cultivars on either culture tubes or an automated plant culture system (APCS, a sterile hydroponics system) was conducted. The APCS produced more biomass (e.g., ≈15-x fold increase in fresh weight), morphogenesis and carvone than employing culture tubes. Carvone was only produced from shoots and was absent in either roots or callus. Carvone levels decreased proportionally in shoots as the distance from the shoot terminus increased. Altering the number of media culture immersions (4, 8, 12, or 16 immersions/day) with the APCS was tested. Twelve immersions of media/day was optimum. Higher culture growth rates resulted in lower carvone levels/culture; however, overall carvone levels/vessel increased due to greater biomass production.

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K.J. Vining, Q. Zhang, A.O. Tucker, C. Smith and T.M. Davis

Mentha longifolia, a wild relative of the polyploid, cultivated Mentha (mint) species, was evaluated as a potential model system for genetic research relevant to the cultivated mints. Fourteen Mentha longifolia accessions maintained by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR), were highly diverse with respect to geographic origin, oil composition, verticillium wilt resistance, aspects of morphology, and molecular marker polymorphism. Accession CMEN 584 was the only carvone chemotype, while CMEN 682 was the only accession with high menthol content. Trans-piperitone oxide was the primary oil component of accessions CMEN 17 and CMEN 18, while pulegone was most abundant in CMEN 20, CMEN 500, CMEN 501, and CMEN 585. Four accessions—CMEN 585, CMEN 17, CMEN 501, and CMEN 81—were consistently resistant to verticillium wilt, while CMEN 584 and CMEN 516 were highly susceptible. Pairwise similarity coefficients were calculated and a UPGMA (unweighted pair-group analysis) tree was constructed on the basis of 63 informative randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker bands. CMEN 585 and CMEN 584 shared the greatest number of bands (16), and formed a distinct cluster in the UPGMA tree. Seven pairs of accessions had no bands in common, emphasizing the high degree of molecular diversity represented by these accessions. The favorable features of diploid (2n = 2x = 24) genome constitution, comparatively small genome size (400 to 500 Mb), self-fertility, fecundity, and diversity with respect to economically relevant traits, contribute to M. longifolia's potential usefulness as a model system for the cultivated mints. As a perennial species amenable to vegetative propagation, M. longifolia's spectrum of susceptibility/resistance to an important vascular wilt disease encourages its further evaluation as a system for broader studies of plant–microbe interactions and disease resistance mechanisms.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Thomas Horgan and S. Marie Rogers

-bourbonene, terpinene-4-ol, b-cariophyllene, dihydrocarvone, transdihydrocarvyl acetate, transb-farnesene, α-terpineol, geracrene-d, l-carvone, cis-carvyl acetate, transcarveol, cis-carveol, cis-jasmone, and viridiflorol. The major constituent was L-carvone; in most

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Dong Sik Yang, Ki-Cheol Son and Stanley J. Kays

comparison of their mass spectra and relative abundances with NIST 02 and Wiley 7 spectral libraries. The concentrations of individual volatiles were expressed as δ -carvone equivalents and are considered relative because recovery and calibration factors

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John C. Beaulieu, Maureen A. Tully, Rebecca E. Stein-Chisholm and Javier M. Obando-Ulloa

, or both). Peel removal resulted in significant loss (98.4%) of the total volatiles on 0 d, although the distribution of the volatiles remaining was not markedly different compared with WPJ ( Table 3 ). Carvone, ( E )-geraniol, and β-caryophellene were

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Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth Baldwin, Jack Hearn, Randy Driggers and Ed Stover

). Other important terpene compounds included two terpene alcohols, linalool and terpinen-4-ol, and one terpene acetone, d -carvone ( Table 2 ). Linalool followed a similar pattern as the above monoterpenes and terpinen-4-ol had little difference among all