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S.D. Sharma and M. Singh

adequate control of various weeds, including Brazil pusley (personal observation). Carfentrazone-ethyl has been found effective against certain broadleaf weeds but has no activity on grasses ( Vencill, 2002 ). Carfentrazone-ethyl inhibits the

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Steven M. Borst, J. Scott McElroy, and Greg K. Breeden

, sodium carbonate peroxyhytests, and even dish detergent (Ultra Dawn®; Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati). These treatments are highly variable and often ineffective compared with the use of carfentrazone and mancozeb plus copper hydroxide, both labeled for the

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J. Scott McElroy and Greg K. Breeden

Siduron and quinclorac provide limited broadleaf weed control during seeded establishment of tall fescue. Carfentrazone and bromoxynil are contact herbicides that act primarily on broadleaf, dicot species. Research was conducted to evaluate tall fescue tolerance to carfentrazone or bromoxynil when integrated into traditional siduron and quinclorac weed control programs. Quinclorac at 0.84 kg·ha–1 applied at seeding followed by quinclorac at 0.84 kg·ha–1 35 days after emergence (DAE) and quinclorac at 1.68 kg·ha–1 plus carfentrazone at 0.034 kg·ha–1 applied DAE were the most injurious to tall fescue 42 and 49 DAE. While quinclorac sequential applications reduced turfgrass groundcover 42 DAE, tall fescue recovered by 49 DAE. Injury from all quinclorac treatments persisted until 63 DAE. Bromoxynil (0.28 or 0.56 kg·ha–1) or carfentrazone (0.017 or 0.034 kg·ha–1) caused minimal injury and no decrease in turfgrass groundcover when applied 35 DAE. While siduron applied at seeding followed by (fb) bromoxynil applied 35 DAE (6.7 fb 0.56 kg·ha–1) caused minimal tall fescue injury, a decrease in groundcover was observed at 49 DAE. No tall fescue cover reduction was observed for any treatment by 63 DAE. These data indicate that bromoxynil and carfentrazone can be safely used during seeded establishment of tall fescue beginning 35 DAE with no long-term effects on turfgrass stand development.

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Andrew J. Hephner, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck, and Gerald M. Henry

(DAIT) ( Kopec et al., 2004b ). Umeda (2008) observed 86% khakiweed control 36 DAIT with applications of carfentrazone + 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba at 0.45 kg a.i./ha. Tank-mixing carfentrazone + 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba at 0.45 kg a.i./ha with

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Yushan Duan, Thomas W. Walters, and Timothy W. Miller

, 1973 , 1980 ; Sheets, 1973 ). Since that time, the herbicides carfentrazone and oxyfluorfen have replaced dinoseb for this use in the PNW, ‘Meeker’ has replaced ‘Willamette’ as the most widely grown raspberry cultivar in the PNW, and more efficient

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Martin M. Williams II, Loyd M. Wax, Jerald K. Pataky, and Michael D. Meyer

, including: bentazon, carfentrazone, dicamba plus diflufenzopyr, foramsulfuron, imazethapyr, mesotrione, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron, rimsulfuron, and tembotrione ( Barrett et al., 1997 ; Nordby et al., 2008 ; Pataky et al., 2006b ; Williams and Pataky

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Jorge E. Arboleya, Joseph G. Masabni, Michael G. Particka, and Bernard H. Zandstra

Dry bulb onion (Allium cepa) leaves may not dry down normally and bulbs may not attain dormancy during adverse growing seasons. An effective method of artificial leaf desiccation is needed to complement mechanical harvesting and onion conditioning for storage. Desiccants were tested in 1993, 1994, 1995, 2001, 2002, 2003 on onion leaves prior to harvest, and bulb quality was evaluated after 5 months or more of storage. Carfentrazone, diquat, and paraquat desiccated onion foliage well but increased bulb rot and reduced the percentage of marketable bulbs after storage. Bromoxynil and endothall desiccated onion foliage significantly without inducing rot or reducing the percentage of marketable bulbs. Copper sulfate and pelargonic acid increased desiccation of onion foliage but were not sufficiently effective for field use. Neither reduced the percentage of marketable bulbs. If bromoxynil or endothall were labelled for onion desiccation, they could be applied 10-14 days before harvest to enhance natural leaf senescence and facilitate mechanical harvest.

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M.J. Haar, S.A. Fennimore, M.E. McGiffen, W.T. Lanini, and C.E. Bell

In an effort to identify new herbicides for vegetables crops, broccoli (Brassica oleracea) cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), carrot (Daucus carota), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa), bulb onion (Allium cepa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were evaluated in the field for tolerance to eight herbicides. The following herbicides and rates, expressed in a.i. lb/acre, were applied preemergence: carfentrazone, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2; flufenacet, 0.525; flumioxazin, 0.063, 0.125 and 0.25; halosulfuron, 0.032 and 0.047; isoxaben, 0.25 and 0.50; rimsulfuron, 0.016 and 0.031; SAN 582, 0.94 and 1.20 and sulfentrazone, 0.15 and 0.25 (1.000 lb/acre = 1.1208 kg·ha-1). Tolerance was evaluated by measuring crop stand, injury and biomass. Several leads for new vegetable herbicides were identified. Lettuce demonstrated tolerance to carfentrazone at 0.05 and 0.10 lb/acre. Cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of halosulfuron at 0.032 and 0.047 lb/acre. Broccoli, cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of SAN 582 at 0.94 lb/acre. Broccoli and carrot were tolerant of sulfentrazone at 0.15 lb/acre.

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Grant R. Manning and Steven A. Fennimore

Methyl bromide has been the foundation of chemical weed control in strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) in California for over 40 years. The impending phaseout of methyl bromide may leave strawberry producers dependent on less efficacious alternative fumigants for weed control. The use of herbicides to supplement fumigants is a potential weed control strategy for strawberry. A 2-year field study was conducted in California to evaluate 10 herbicides as possible supplements for methyl bromide alternative fumigants. Herbicides were applied immediately after transplanting (immediate posttransplant), and 3 weeks after transplanting (delayed posttransplant). Napropamide applied immediate posttransplant was included as a commercial standard. Immediate posttransplant treatments that were safe in strawberry include carfentrazone at 0.075 and 0.15 lb/acre (0.084 and 0.168 kg·ha-1), flumioxazin at 0.063 lb/acre (0.071 kg·ha-1) and sulfentrazone at 0.175 and 0.25 lb/acre (0.196 and 0.28 kg·ha-1). Triflusulfuron at 0.016 lb/acre (0.017 kg·ha-1) was the only delayed posttransplant treatment with acceptable selectivity. Among the selective herbicides applied immediate posttransplant, flumioxazin and napropamide provided the most consistent control of bur clover (Medicago polymorpha) and shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Triflusulfuron applied delayed posttransplant did not significantly reduce bur clover densities, but did reduce shepherd's purse densities.

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Jerald K. Pataky, Jonathan N. Nordby, Martin M. Williams II, and Dean E. Riechers

Some sweet corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids and inbreds can be severely injured by applications of postemergence herbicides. An association was observed between the responses of sweet corn hybrids and inbreds to nicosulfuron and mesotrione, and F2 families derived from a cross of a sensitive (Cr1) and a tolerant (Cr2) sweet corn inbred segregated for response to these two herbicides. These observations prompted us to examine the inheritance of sensitivity in sweet corn to multiple postemergence herbicide treatments with different modes of action and to determine if there was a common genetic basis for cross-sensitivity to these herbicides. The sensitive and tolerant inbreds, progeny in the F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 generations, and BC1S1, BC2S1, F2:3 (S1:2) and F3:4 (S2:3) families were screened for responses to eight herbicide treatments. Based on segregation of tolerant and sensitive progeny and segregation of family responses, our data indicate that a single recessive gene in Cr1 conditioned sensitivity to four acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides (foramsulfuron, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron, and rimsulfuron), a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide (mesotrione), a growth regulator herbicide combination (dicamba + diflufenzopyr), and a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicide (carfentrazone). Based on highly significant positive correlations of phenotypic responses among BC1S1, BC2S1, F2:3, and F3:4 families, the same gene (or closely linked genes) appeared to condition responses to each of these herbicide treatments. The dominant allele also conditions tolerance to bentazon [a photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicide] although another gene(s) also appeared to affect bentazon tolerance.