many interesting characteristics observed in some of the wild species and may be exploited to improve photosynthetic rates of the cultivated strawberry ( Hancock et al., 1989a ). Reported net carbon exchange rate for the cultivated strawberry ranges
Rebecca M. Harbut, J. Alan Sullivan, John T.A. Proctor, and Harry J. Swartz
Rebecca L. Darnell, Nicacio Cruz-Huerta, and Jeffrey G. Williamson
species such as cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) and bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ), however, leaves developed under LNT may acclimate to such conditions, resulting in carbon exchange rates as high as in plants growing under higher temperatures ( Singh et al
Ido Schechter, J.T.A. Proctor, and D.C. Elfving
Mature `Sturdeespur Delicious' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees on MM.106 rootstocks were hand-deblossomed or hand-pollinated in 1989 and 1990. Two representative limbs were chosen at bloom on each tree in 1989, one of which was girdled (G) while the other served as a control. One representative limb was selected at bloom in 1990. Three leaf types were studied: shoot (SH) leaves, leaves on nonfruiting (NF) spurs (S-F), and leaves on fruiting (F) spurs (S + F). The presence of fruit did not affect C exchange rate (CER). Girdling fruiting limbs reduced CER by ≈10%. Girdling NF limbs resulted in starch accumulation in the leaves and low CER. SH leaves had the highest CER per unit leaf area, while S + F leaves had the lowest. Total seasonal dry weight (DW) accumulated in leaves, fruit, and wood, normalized per square centimeter limb cross-sectional area (LCSA), was higher in F trees. Roots were longer and DW of roots extracted from soil core samples was higher in NF trees. NF trees had significantly more vegetative growth in new shoots and dry-matter increment in wood than F trees.
John E. Erickson and Kevin E. Kenworthy
resistance ( Carrow, 1995 ; Qian and Engelke, 1999 ). Thus, we specifically wanted to test whether N fertilization would affect daily ET, daily ET per unit leaf area, carbon exchange rate, biomass, and WUE and whether these relations would differ by genotype
Thomas G. Ranney and John M. Ruter
Temperature sensitivity of CO2 assimilation (ACO2), dark respiration, and chlorophyll fluorescence was evaluated among three taxa of hollies including I. aquifolium L., I. cornuta Lindl. & Paxt., and I. rugosa Friedr. Schmidt. Variations in foliar heat tolerance among these species were manifested in temperature responses for ACO2. Temperature optima of ACO2 for I. rugosa, I. cornuta, and I. aquifolium were 22.0, 26.3, and 27.9 °C, respectively (LSD0.05 = 2.9). Temperature responses of respiration were similar among taxa and did not appear to be contributing factors to variations in ACO2. At 40 °C, potential photosynthetic capacity, measured under saturating CO2, was 4.1, 9.4, and 14.8 μmol·m-2·s-1 for I. rugosa, I. aquifolium, and I. cornuta, respectively (LSD0.05 = 5.1). Variations in the relative dark-acclimated fluorescence temperature curves were used to assess thresholds for irreversible heat injury. The critical fluorescence temperature threshold (TC) was similar (48.0 °C) for all taxa. The fluorescence temperature peaks (TP) were 52.0, 52.8, and 53.5 °C for I. rugosa, I. cornuta, and I. aquifolium, respectively (LSD0.05 = 0.9). Based on these results, I. rugosa was the most heat-sensitive species, followed by I. aquifolium and I. cornuta. Ilex cornuta also had substantially greater potential photosynthetic capacity than the other species at 40 °C, indicating superior metabolic tolerance to high temperatures.
Thomas G. Ranney and Richard E. Bir
The potential for enhancing flood tolerance of birches by using better adapted rootstock was evaluated. Survival, growth, and physiological responses were compared among flooded and nonflooded container-grown Japanese birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica Hara. `Whitespire') trees grafted onto each of four rootstock: paper birch (B. papyrifera Marsh), European birch (B.pendula Roth.), river birch (B. nigra L.), and `Whitespire' Japanese birch. Separate studies were conducted in Fall 1991 and Spring 1992. Results showed no consistent differences in net photosynthesis (Pn) or survival among nonflooded plants regardless of rootstock or season, nor, were any symptoms of graft incompatibility evident. Flooding the root system for as long as 44 days revealed considerable differences among the four rootstock, with similar trends for fall and spring. Plants on river birch rootstock typically had one of the highest P rates and stomatal conductance (g,) and, in certain cases, greater mean shoot growth rates and survival of plants subjected to prolonged flooding. Although plants with European birch rootstock had survival rates similar to those of plants with river birch rootstock, plants on European birch rootstock had lower Pn under prolonged flooding, fewer late-formed roots, lower root-tip density after flooding, more abscissed leaves, and greater inhibition of shoot growth of plants flooded the previous fall. Paper and Japanese birch rootstock were most sensitive to flooding and had the lowest survival rate after flooding. However, plants on paper birch rootstock were the only plants whose Pn did not increase significantly when flooding ended; they had the most abscissed leaves during spring flooding and the greatest inhibition of shoot growth in the spring after flooding the previous fall. The four rootstock ranked from most to least flood tolerant were river > European > Japanese > paper.
Thomas G. Ranney, Frank A. Blazich, and Stuart L. Warren
Temperature sensitivity of net photosynthesis (PN) was evaluated among four taxa of rhododendron including Rhododendron hyperythrum Hayata, R. russatum Balf. & Forr., and plants from two populations (northern and southern provenances) of R. catawbiense Michx. Measurements were conducted on leaves at temperatures rauging from 15 to 40C. Temperature optima for PN ranged from a low of 20C for R. russatum to a high of 25C for R. hyperythrum. At 40C, PN rates for R. hyperythrum, R. catawbiense (northern provenance), R. catawbiense (southern provenance), and R. russatum were 7.8,5.7,3.5, and 0.2 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively (LSD0.05 = 1.7). Rhododendron catawbiense from the southern provenance did not appear to have greater heat tolerance than plants from the northern provenance. Differences in dark respiration among taxa were related primarily to differences in tissue weight per unit leaf surface area. Temperature coefficients (Q5) for respiration did not vary in temperature response among taxa. Differences in heat tolerance appeared to result from a combination of stomatal and nonstomatal limitations on PN at high temperatures.
Thomas G. Ranney and Mary M. Peet
Leaf gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were used as indexes for evaluating heat tolerance among five taxa of birch: paper (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), European (B. pendula Roth.), Japanese (B. platyphylla var. japonica Hara. cv. Whitespire), Himalayan (B. jacquemontii Spach.), and river (B. nigra L. cv. Heritage). Gas-exchange measurements were conducted on individual leaves at temperatures ranging from 25 to 40C. River birch maintained the highest net photosynthetic rates (Pn) at high temperatures, while Pn of paper birch was reduced the most. Further study of river and paper birch indicated that the reduced Pn at high temperatures and the differential sensitivity between taxa resulted from several factors. Inhibition of Pn at higher temperatures was due largely to nonstomatal limitations for both taxa. Increases in respiration rates, decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem (PS) II (F V/F M), and possible reductions in light energy directed to PS II (F 0 quenching) were apparent for both taxa. The capacity of river birch to maintain greater Pn at higher temperatures seemed to result from a lower Q10 for dark respiration and possibly greater thermotolerance of the Calvin cycle as indicated by a lack of nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching with increasing temperatures. Thermal injury, as indicated by a rapid increase in minimal, dark-acclimated (F 0) fluorescence, was not evident for either paper or river birch until temperatures reached ≈49C and was similar for both taxa.
J. Roger Harris and Edward F. Gilman
Abbreviations: CER, carbon exchange rate; FC, fabric containers; FG, field grown; PC, plastic containers; Ψ leaf , leaf water potential. 1 Current address: Urban Horticulture Institute, 20 Plant Science Bldg., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853
Sven E. Svenson and F. T. Davies Jr.
Pinus taeda L. seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus, Pisolithus tinctorius, were grown in a glasshouse for eight months, and then subjected to rapidly developing cyclic water deficits, or to a single slowly developing water deficit. Water deficits developed at a rate of -0.16 MPa per day (predawn total water potential) for five cyclic water deficits, and at -0.04 MPa per day for the slow water deficit. In unstressed seedlings, carbon exchange rates (CER) did not differ between noninoculated and inoculated seedlings. During slow water deficit development, CER steadily declined. During rapid water deficit development, CER remained unchanged, then declined rapidly when water potentials fell below -1.3 MPa. Inoculated seedlings had higher CER when water potential was lower than -1.5 MPa.