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Jonathan M. Frantz

audible operation of the solenoid indicating that plants were actively drawing down the CO 2 available at those times. Table 2. Model parameters used in calculations for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reduction within a greenhouse in 1 h. This is a light

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Maren J. Mochizuki, Oleg Daugovish, Miguel H. Ahumada, Shawn Ashkan, and Carol J. Lovatt

. Experimental design for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) application to raspberry under high tunnels near Camarillo, CA, was completely randomized with three replications per treatment. An “X” indicates buffer tunnels that separated treatments. Construction of CO 2

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Celia M. Cantín, Carlos H. Crisosto, and Kevin R. Day

., 1989 ). However, MAP performance is sensitive to temperature and under certain conditions, it can create “off flavor” and decay problems, which negate the potential benefit of reducing weight loss. It has been reported that high carbon dioxide (CO 2

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Jennifer R. DeEll, Jennifer T. Ayres, and Dennis P. Murr

= 1 nL·L −1 , 1 μL·kg −1 = 1 ppm. Fig. 2. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production of ‘McIntosh’ apples from Harvests 1 and 2 treated 3, 7, or 10 d after harvest with 0, 625, or 1000 ppb 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), stored for 3 and 6 months (data combined

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Lloyd L. Nackley, Jig Han Jeong, Lorence R. Oki, and Soo-Hyung Kim

levels is likely to have contributed to a marginal increase in biomass responses ( Fig. 2 ). Table 1. Leaf gas-exchange parameters (n = 6–8) and 13 C stable isotope ratios [Δ 13 C in ‰ (n = 5)] of garlic plants in response to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and

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Andrew J. Macnish, Malkeet S. Padda, Francine Pupin, Pavlos I. Tsouvaltzis, Angelos I. Deltsidis, Charles A. Sims, Jeffrey K. Brecht, and Elizabeth J. Mitcham

moderate reduction in O 2 concentration is similar to the levels measured inside sealed strawberry pallet covers enriched with CO 2 during air shipment ( Harvey et al., 1966 , 1971 ). Table 2. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations inside four [CO 2 West

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and John R. Seiler

, extracellular dehydrogenase, or by measuring the metabolic activity [oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) release] of the population ( Blagodatsky et al., 2000 ; Needelman et al., 2001 ; Turner and Carlile, 1983 ). Carbon dioxide release represents the

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Mark M. Alley

, nucleic acids, and other organic complexes contained within microbial cells ( Davet, 2004 ). Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) release represents the final stage of oxidation of organic substrates ( Davet, 2004 ). Because root respiration is also a source of CO 2 in

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B. Todd Bunnell, Lambert B. McCarty, and Hoke S. Hill

Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) is used on putting greens for its fine-leaf texture, consistent speed, smooth ball roll, and year-round color. In recent years bentgrass use has extended into the warmer climates of the southern United States. Being a C3 plant, bentgrass is not well adapted to extended hot and humid environmental conditions. Subsurface air movement systems are now commercially available that can transport air through the root zone to alter soil conditions and potentially improve bentgrass survival. This research investigated the effects of subsurface air movement on the composition of soil gases, matric potential, temperature, and growth response of a sand-based creeping bentgrass golf green. Treatments included: air movement direction (evacuate, inject, and no air) and duration of air movement (0400-0600 hr, 1000-1800 hr, and 24 hours). Treatment combinations were imposed for 13 days. Subsurface air movement reduced CO2 at the 9-cm depth to values <0.0033 mol·mol-1 when evacuating or injecting air, depending upon duration. Soil matric potentials at a 9-cm depth were decreased by a maximum of 96% when evacuating air for 24-hour duration compared to no-air plots. Soil temperatures at 9 cm were decreased ≈1 to 1.5 °C when injecting air from 1000 to 1800 hr and 24-hour treatments and increased ≈0.75 °C when evacuating air from 1000 to 1800 hr. Subsurface air movement did not improve creeping bentgrass turf quality or rooting. Although not effective in improving the growth response of creeping bentgrass, subsurface air movement may be a useful tool to improve soil gas composition, reduce excess soil moisture, and potentially reduce soil temperature(s) of heat-stressed creeping bentgrass golf greens.

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Jim Hancock, Pete Callow, Sedat Serçe, Eric Hanson, and Randy Beaudry

Controlled-atmosphere storage had little effect on the quality of fruit of eight cultivars held under 2 kPa oxygen (O2) and 8 kPa carbon dioxide (CO2) versus ambient air. ‘Elliott’ fruit harvested from bushes with only 30% ripe fruit had significantly better storage quality than fruit picked later; however, there was no significant difference in the storage life of fruit that was stored fully blue versus partially green. Fruit from the first harvest of four cultivars had superior storage quality to that of the second. In one comparison of the long-term storability of nine cultivars, ‘Bluegold’, ‘Brigitta’, and ‘Legacy’ performed the best, storing for 4 to 7 weeks. In another postharvest trial of 17 cultivars, ‘Brigitta’ stored the longest (8 weeks) followed by ‘Aurora’ and ‘Draper’ (7 weeks). The most resistant genotypes to Alternaria spp. were ‘Brigitta’, ‘Aurora’, ‘Elliott’, and ‘Draper’, whereas the most resistant genotypes to Colletotrichum spp. were ‘Elliott’, ‘Brigitta’, ‘Toro’, ‘Draper’, and ‘Bluejay’.