and Gao (2000) showed that high temperatures impaired photosynthesis and reduced carbohydrate production for three creeping bentgrass cultivars, leading to significant decline in TQ. The net carbon balance of an ecosystem depends on the magnitude of
Yali Song, Patrick Burgess, Hairong Han, and Bingru Huang
Alan N. Lakso
Apples have very high record yields (about 140 tons/ha sustained) that demand large amounts of carbon to be produced and partitioned into both fruit and vegetative structures. Even though large quantities of dry matter can be produced, profitability depends on the management of the carbon production and partitioning to produce the optimal balance of yield and fruit quality. The productivity is mostly related to moderate photosynthesis rates per leaf area, long leaf area duration, high seasonal radiation interception, relatively low respiration, and very high harvest index. Due to the perennial nature and large size, few good estimates of seasonal carbon balance are available. Models have been developed, but are not wellvalidated yet, but general seasonal trends are apparent. Daily net CO2 exchange begins negative with early spring growth, reaches zero near bloom, peaks about 6 to 10 weeks after bloom, then gradually declines until leaf fall. The demand of the fruit appears to increase exponentially during cell division, then levels off to a relatively constant demand until harvest. Experiments and modeling suggests that if fruit development is limited by carbon availability, the probability increases in heavily cropping trees, and will occur at about 2 to 4 weeks after bloom and before harvest. Best carbon balance appears to occur in relatively cool temperatures and in very long seasons.
Fred T. Davies Jr., Randal S. Stahl, and Sharon A. Duray
Symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi increase the P uptake of agronomic, horticultural, and forestry crops. Little is known about the real-time dynamics of carbon balance (net gain of biomass resulting from photosynthesis less the respiratory costs) of plants colonized with mycorrhizae. Our objective was to determine the carbon balance of endomycorrhizal (VAM) chile pepper `San Luis' (Capsicum annuum L.) as a model system for predicting plant response to limited P availability under elevated CO2. The increase in atmospheric CO2 is expected to result in increased plant productivity and greater demand for soil P, however, the lack of available soil P may become the most important nutritional problem limiting crop productivity. Under current conditions, the limitation of soil-P availability is an enormous problem that affects 25% of the world's arable lands. We are quantifying the carbon costs paid by the mycorrhizal plant under varying levels of P deficiency over the life cycle of the plant. Preliminary results from this study under ambient CO2 conditions indicate that there is a lower maintenance respiration and higher growth efficiency with mycorrhizal pepper plants under low soil-P conditions.
Chieri Kubota, Makiko Ezawa, Toyoki Kozai, and Sandra B. Wilson
The effects of initial sucrose (suc) concentrations in the medium (S0) on the carbon balance and growth of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. `Beniazuma'] and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `HanaQueen') plantlets were studied under controlled environmental conditions. Plantlets were cultured with 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 g·L-1 of S0 under high photosynthetic photon flux (160 to 200 μmol·m-2·s-1) and CO2 enriched (1400 to 2050 μmol·mol-1) conditions. Net photosynthetic rate per leaf area (Pl) decreased and dry weight per plantlet (Wd) increased with increasing S0, but did not differ significantly between S0 of 7.5 to 30 g·L-1 for sweetpotato or 15 to 30 g·L-1 for tomato. Carbon influxes and effluxes of the plantlets by metabolism of medium suc and/or photosynthesis, and respiration were estimated based on measurements of in situ and steady state CO2 exchange rates and sugar uptake during culture. At S0 from 7.5 to 30 g·L-1, photosynthesis was responsible for 82% to 92% and 60% to 67% of carbohydrate assimilation for sweetpotato and tomato, respectively. Estimated carbon balances of plantlets based on the estimated and actual increases of moles of carbon in plant tissue demonstrated that in situ estimation of carbon balance was reasonably accurate for sweetpotato at S0 of 0 to 15 g·L-1 and for tomato at S0 of 0 g·L-1 and that the actual contribution of photosynthesis for tomato at high S0 might be lower than the values estimated in the present experiment. Results showed that initial suc concentration affected the relative contribution of photosynthesis on their carbon balances and that the responses were species specific. The failure of validation at S0 in a range specific to each species suggested the need for further study on carbon metabolism of in vitro plantlets cultured with sugar in the medium.
A.H.D. Francesconi, A.N. Lakso, J.P. Nyrop, J. Barnard, and S.S. Denning
The hypothesis that carbon balance is the basis for differences in responses by lightly and normally cropped apple trees to European red mite (ERM) [Panonychus ulmi (Koch)] damage was tested. Mature `Starkrimson Delicious' (Malus domestica Borkh.)/M.26 apple trees were hand-thinned to light (125 fruit/tree, about 20 t/ha) or normal (300 fruit/tree, about 40 t/ha) target crop levels and infested with low [<100 cumulative mite-days (CMD)], medium (400 to 1000 CMD) or high (>1000 CMD) target levels of ERM. A range of crop loads and CMD was obtained. Mite population density, fruit growth, leaf and whole-canopy net CO2 exchange rates (NCER) were measured throughout the growing season of 1994. Leaf area and vegetative growth per tree were also measured. Yield and final mean fruit size were determined at harvest. Return bloom and fruiting were determined the following year. Total shoot length per tree was not affected by crop load or mite damage. ERM reduced leaf and whole-canopy NCER. Normally cropped trees showed fruit weight reduction earlier and more severely than lightly cropped trees with high mite injury. Variation in final fruit weight, return bloom and return fruiting was much better related to whole-canopy NCER per fruit than to CMD.
A.N. Lakso, J.N. Wünsche, J.W. Palmer, and L. Corelli Grappadelli
Susanna Marchi, Luca Sebastiani, Riccardo Gucci, and Roberto Tognetti
Net photosynthesis, dark respiration, chlorophyll and carbohydrate content, and leaf and shoot growth of deciduous peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] saplings, grown in greenhouse conditions, were measured to assess changes in carbon balance during leaf development. The 6th, 12th, and 16th leaf node were measured from the first flush at the base through expansion to maturity (the first node being the oldest). Shoot and leaves expanded following a sigmoid pattern in all nodes. The shape of the logistic curve did not vary between the 6th and the 16th leaf node, while the 12th leaf node showed a steeper response, suggesting that the latter reached 50% expansion relatively earlier. Photosynthesis varied with leaf development as young leaves had low CO2 assimilation rates that were reflected in their chlorophyll concentration. Net daily CO2 assimilation was negative in young expanding leaves. The sink-source transition, defined to be the time when the increase in daily carbohydrate exchange rate exceeded the daily increase in leaf carbohydrate content, occurred before full leaf expansion. The transition from import to export was attained 11-12 days after budbreak (corresponding to 41% to 45% of full leaf expansion) for the 6th leaf, about 7-9 days after (38% to 52% of full expansion) for the 12th leaf and after 9-10 days (32% to 38% of full expansion) for the 16th leaf. Below 30% to 50% of full expansion leaves might not respond to assimilate requirements from sinks, being sinks themselves.
Michael R. Sweatt and Jayne M. Zajicek
Castilleja indivisa grows hemiparasitically attached to the roots of various nearby plants. Studies were done using several host plants to determine the effects of the parasitic relationship on the growth of C. indivisa and the host plants. Transpiration rates, and leaf water potentials of C. indivisa, and various hosts, were also measured at various soil moisture levels. Carbon transfer between C. indivisa and each host was examined using a 14CO2 tracing technique.
The various hosts used in this experiment enhanced the growth of C. indivisa by 200-700% compared to non-parasitic controls. Transpiration rates of non-parasitic controls remained relatively low at all soil moisture levels while transpiration rates of parasitic C. indivisa increased rapidly as soil moisture increased, and generally exceeded that of its host at low to medium soil moisture levels. Leaf water potentials of non-parasitic controls were generally more negative than other treatments. Carbon exchange between C. indivisa and its hosts was insignificant and appears not to be a major nutritional factor.
Susanna Marchi, Luca Sebastiani, Riccardo Gucci, and Roberto Tognetti
Net photosynthesis, dark respiration, chlorophyll and carbohydrate content, and leaf and shoot growth in plants of evergreen olive (Olea europaea L.) grown under controlled conditions were measured to assess changes in carbon balance during leaf development of the 6th, 12th, and 16th node (from the base, first flush) through expansion to maturity. Shoot and leaves expanded in a sigmoid pattern with differences among nodes. Photosynthesis varied with leaf development; young leaves had low CO2 assimilation rates that were reflected in their chlorophyll concentration. Net daily CO2 assimilation was negative in young expanding leaves. The sink-source transition, defined to be the time when the increase in daily carbohydrate exchange rate exceeds the daily increase in leaf carbohydrate content, occurred before full leaf expansion, between 10% and 30% expansion depending on the node.
Sven Verlinden, Silvanda M. Silva, Robert C. Herner, and Randolph M. Beaudry
sections of the spear and may act as a carbohydrate source for the more apical sections of the spear. The objective of this research was to establish the carbon balance between respiration and hexose catabolism as a function of the longitudinal position of