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A. Bar-Zur and A. Schaffer

Abbreviations: CHO, carbohydrate; WSP, water-soluble polysaccharides. This project was supported in part by Galilee Seeds, “Peri” Project no, 801. Contribution no. 3382-E, 1991 series from the Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel

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T.J. Smalley, M.A. Dirr, A.M. Armitage, B.W. Wood, R.O. Teskey, and R.F. Severson

Leaf water status, carbohydrate levels, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, ABA, dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR), and trans-zeatin riboside (ZR) levels were determined in a greenhouse during rooting of stem cuttings of Acer rubrum L. `Red Sunset' taken on 3 Sept. 1987 and 28 May 1988. Leaf water status deteriorated before rooting and improved after root emergence. Leaf carbohydrate concentrations (glucose, sucrose, total soluble sugars, and total carbohydrates) increased until rooting and decreased after rooting, while changes in starch concentrations were trendless. ABA levels increased after insertion of cuttings into the rooting medium, but decreased before rooting. No correlation between timing of rooting and concentrations of the cytokinins ZR or DHZR was observed. Photosynthetic rates during rooting were higher for the Sept. 1987 cuttings and did not decrease to the compensation point as did those for May 1988 cuttings. Low photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of the cuttings during rooting were associated with water stress. The relationship between photosynthetic rates of such cuttings and cytokinin (CK) or ABA content was unclear. Chemical names used: [S-(Z,E]-5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-methyl-2, 4-pentadienoic acid (abscisic acid, ABA); 2-methyl-4-(1H-purin-6-ylamino)-2-buten-1-ol (zeatin, Z).

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Takashi Nishizawa and Kenji Saito

Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill `Ougata-fukuju' and `Korokoro') were grown in a soil or a hydroponic culture to study effects of rooting volume restriction on plant growth and carbohydrate concentrations. In soil culture, leaf lengths decreased linearly as container volume decreased, while plant height did not decrease linearly, irrespective of fruiting. The root to shoot ratio decreased in smaller volume containers, irrespective of fruiting, because dry mass accumulation in the stem and leaves was relatively less inhibited than that in the roots. Total plant dry mass did not differ between fruiting and deblossomed plants, irrespective of container volume. In hydroponic culture, plant height in small containers (37 cm3) was similar to that in large containers (2024 or 4818 cm3). The root to shoot ratio of the plants grown in small containers was lower than that of the plants grown in large containers, mainly due to less inhibition of the dry mass accumulation in the stem than in the leaves. When small containers were almost filled with roots (28 days after transplanting), soluble sugar and starch concentrations in leaves became ≈2-fold higher in the plants grown in small than in those grown in large containers. At the end of experiment (42 days after transplanting), sucrose and starch concentrations in the stem were higher in plants grown in small than in those grown in large containers. However, soluble sugar and starch concentrations in the leaves did not differ between treatments.

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William B. Miller, Anil P. Ranwala, Garry Legnani, Merel Langens-Gerrits, Geert-Jan de Klerk, Johannes Eckelmann, and Michael Ernst

88 Colloquium 2 (Abstr. 706–713) The Carbohydrate Economy of Horticultural Crops

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Arthur A. Schaffer, Marina Petreikov, Daphne Miron, Miriam Fogelman, Moshe Spiegelman, Zecharia Bnei-Moshe, Shmuel Shen, David Granot, Rivka Hadas, Nir Dai, Moshe Bar, Michael Friedman, Meir Pilowsky, Nehama Gilboa, and Leah Chen

88 Colloquium 2 (Abstr. 706–713) The Carbohydrate Economy of Horticultural Crops

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Rebecca L. Darnell, Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

. This, in turn, can result in decreased root carbohydrate reserves and decreased yield. Many studies have shown that root pruning in temperate crops affects shoot growth and yield. Dormant root pruning, such as what occurs in the above described annual

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Susan E. Trusty and William B. Miller

Abbreviations: DP, degree of polymerization DPP, days postproduction MCW, methanol: chloroform: water; TSC, total soluble carbohydrate. l Graduate Assistant. 2 Assistant Professor of Plant Sciences, to whom reprint requests should be addressed

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Graham H. Barry, and Paul J.R. Cronjé

availability of carbohydrates ( Dovis et al., 2014 ; Goldschmidt and Golomb, 1982 ; Martínez-Alcántara et al., 2015 ; Monerri et al., 2011 ; Smith, 1976 ). The primary objective of this study was to improve the understanding of the mechanism of alternate

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Eliezer E. Goldschmidt

88 Colloquium 2 (Abstr. 706–713) The Carbohydrate Economy of Horticultural Crops

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Steven Raines, Cynthia Henson, and Michael J. Havey

terminal fructose residues. No FEHs have been cloned from onion, but 1-FEH activity during storage has been characterized ( Benkeblia et al., 2005 ). Genetic studies of soluble carbohydrates in onion bulbs have revealed significant phenotypic and