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Rebecca L. Darnell, Nicacio Cruz-Huerta and Jeffrey G. Williamson

interaction between night temperature and source-sink modification on ovary carbohydrate accumulation and swelling has not been investigated. Thus, the hypothesis tested in the present experiment is that ovary swelling—whether resulting from LNT effects on

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Hai-Fang Yang, Hye-Ji Kim, Hou-Bin Chen, Jillur Rahman, Xing-Yu Lu and Bi-Yan Zhou

to reproductive growth ( Wellmer and Riechmann, 2010 ). In the present study, we focused on three important commercially cultivated cultivars, Guiwei, Feizixiao, and Huaizhi. We investigated the carbohydrate accumulation at different developmental

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D. Bradley Rowe, Stuart L. Warren, Frank A. Blazich and D. Mason Pharr

Catawba rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiense Michx.) seedlings of two provenances, Johnston County, N.C. (35°45′N, 78°12′W, elevation = 67 m), and Yancey County, N.C. (35°45′N, 82°16′W, elevation = 1954 m), were grown in controlled-environment chambers for 18 weeks with days at 18, 22, 26, or 30C in factorial combination with nights at 14, 18, 22, or 26C. Seedlings of the higher-elevation provenance generally exhibited higher net leaf photosynthetic rates (PN)s than those from the lower elevation at all temperature combinations. Thus, it appears seedlings of the high-elevation provenance possess greater relative thermotolerance, expressed as net photosynthesis, than the low-elevation provenance. Eighty-seven days after initiation (DAI) of the experiment, PN showed a quadratic response to increasing day temperature, with the maximum occurring at 22C, whereas PN decreased linearly with increasing night temperature. At 122 DAI, PN increased linearly with increasing day temperature with nights at 22 and 26C. Highest PNs were at 30/22C and 26/22C. Carbohydrate export increased with increasing day temperature, whereas the response to night temperature was minimal. High levels of nonstructural carbohydrates occurred at thermoperiods (22/22C and 26/22C) that optimize seedling growth. However, definitive trends relating seedling growth to PNs, leaf carbohydrate levels, or to the amount of carbohydrate exported from the leaves were difficult to generalize due to numerous day × night interactions.

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Xiaozhong Liu and Bingru Huang

Understanding physiological factors that may confer heat tolerance would facilitate breeding for improvement of summer turf quality. The objective of this study was to investigate whether carbohydrate availability contributes to changes in turf quality and root mortality during heat stress in two creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw. (syn. A. palustris Huds.)] cultivars, `L-93' and `Penncross', that contrast in heat tolerance. Grasses were grown at 14-hour days and 11-hour nights of 22/16 °C (control) and 35/25 °C (heat stress) for 56 days in growth chambers. Turf quality decreased while root mortality increased under heat-stress conditions for both cultivars, but to a greater extent for `Penncross' than `L-93'. The concentrations of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC), fructans, starch, glucose, and sucrose in shoots (leaves and stems) and roots decreased at 35/25 °C. The reduction in carbohydrate concentrations of shoots was more pronounced than that of roots. Shoot glucose and sucrose concentrations were more sensitive to heat stress than other carbohydrates. `L-93' maintained significantly higher carbohydrate concentrations, especially glucose and sucrose, than `Penncross' at 35/25 °C. Results suggest that high carbohydrate availability, particularly glucose and sucrose, during heat stress was an important physiological trait associated with heat-stress tolerance in creeping bentgrass.

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Badrane M. Erhioui, André Gosselin, Xiuming Hao, Athanasios P. Papadopoulos and Martine Dorais

A study was conducted in mini-greenhouses covered with single-glass (glass), double inflated polyethylene film (D-poly), or rigid twin acrylic panels (acrylic) to determine the effects of covering materials and supplemental lighting (SL) (65 μmol·m-2·s-1 at 1 m from the ground, providing a 16-hour photoperiod) on growth, yield, photosynthesis, and leaf carbohydrate concentration of `Trust' greenhouse tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Regardless of the light treatment, the marketable yield (kg·m-2) and the number of fruit per square meter in D-poly houses were higher (P ≤ 0.05) by 15% to 16% and 13% to 17%, respectively, than in glasshouses. Under supplemental lighting (SL), similar results were observed in acrylic houses compared to glasshouses. Covering materials had no significant effect on photosynthesis and leaf chlorophyll (chl) concentration. SL increased the number of leaves (March) by 15% (P ≤ 0.05) in glasshouses, marketable fruit yield by 23% (P ≤ 0.01) in acrylic houses, leaf specific weight by 19% to 33% (P ≤ 0.05) in all houses, total chl concentration by 10% to 14% (P ≤ 0.01) in acrylic houses, and photosynthetic rate (March) by 22% (P ≤ 0.01) in glasshouses. Under nonsupplemental lighting (nonSL, daily solar radiation of 8.42 MJ·m-2), plant height in acrylic houses was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than in glasshouses. Neither covering materials nor SL affected (P ≤ 0.05) dry matter allocation to the fruit. Results suggest that D-poly and acrylic houses with SL provide the best environment for the early yield (February to March) under southwestern Ontario growing conditions. The photosynthetic rate decreased (P ≤ 0.05) by 18% in acrylic, and 15% in D-poly and glasshouses after 2 months of growth under nonSL. Conversely, the decrease in carbon exchange rate was not significant in D-poly houses and glasshouses under SL. As a result, the photosynthesis decline observed in the present study could not be explained by leaf starch accumulation in March.

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Seong-Tae Choi, Doo-Sang Park, Seong-Mo Kang and Seong-Koo Kang

be much more important in the higher fruit-load orchards for ensuring sustainable production of quality fruits. High fruit loads can also decrease carbohydrate accumulation in perennial tissues of the tree ( Choi et al., 2005 ; Loescher et al., 1990

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Fhatuwani N. Mudau, Ambani R. Mudau, Mpumelelo Nkomo and Wonder Ngezimana

depends on the abundance of carbohydrates stored. The quality of tea is determined by pruning frequencies ( Panda, 2011 ), and no studies on bush tea to date have investigated the seasonal variation of carbohydrate accumulation and dynamics as affected by

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Pedro Brás de Oliveira, Maria José Silva, Ricardo B. Ferreira, Cristina M. Oliveira and António A. Monteiro

, starch declines and soluble carbohydrates accumulate in winter in response to decreasing temperatures in the fall. The reverse occurs in spring ( Palonen, 1999 ). However, the interaction between carbohydrate accumulation and cultural practices has not

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Xuan Liu and Catherine Grieve

treatments. Starch reserves were also examined to provide more comprehensive information on Limonium nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation in response to salinity. Materials and Methods Plant materials and growth conditions. The study

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

Efficient carbon distribution and utilization may enhance drought survival and recovery ability for perennial grasses. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in carbon partitioning and carbohydrate accumulation patterns in shoots and roots of colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris L.), creeping bentgrass (A. stolonifera L.), and velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.) in response to drought and re-watering following drought, and to determine whether species variation in drought tolerance and recuperative potential is related to differences in the patterns of carbon partitioning and accumulation. The experiment consisted of three treatments: 1) well-watered control; 2) drought, irrigation completely withheld for 18 days; and 3) drought recovery, a group of drought-stressed plants were re-watered at the end of the drought treatment (18 days). Drought tolerance and recuperative ability of three species was evaluated by measuring turf quality and leaf relative water content. These parameters indicated that velvet bentgrass was most drought tolerant while colonial bentgrass had highest recuperative ability among the three species. Plants were labeled with 14CO2 to determine carbon partitioning to shoots and roots. Carbohydrate accumulation was assessed by total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) content. The proportion of newly photosynthesized 14C partitioned to roots increased at 12 days of drought compared to the pre-stress level, to a greater extent for velvet bentgrass (45%) than for colonial bentgrass (35%) and creeping bentgrass (30%). In general, the proportion of 14C was highest in roots, intermediate in stems, and lowest in leaves at 12 days of drought treatment for all three bentgrass species. As drought duration and severity increased (18 days), 14C partitioning increased more in leaves and stems relative to that in roots for all three species. Stem TNC content was significantly greater for drought-stressed plants of colonial bentgrass and velvet bentgrass compared to their respective well-watered control plants, whereas no differences in stem TNC content were observed between drought-stressed and well-watered creeping bentgrass. Our results suggest that increased carbon partitioning to roots during initial drought stress represented an adaptive response of bentgrass species to short-term drought stress, and increased carbon partitioning and carbohydrate accumulation in stems during prolonged period of drought stress could be beneficial for rapid recovery of turf growth and water status upon re-watering.