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Deron Caplan, Mike Dixon, and Youbin Zheng

phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids; Chandra et al., 2017 ; Potter, 2014 ). Some cannabinoids, including THC and CBD, have been widely studied for their psychoactive and medicinal properties ( Elzinga et al., 2015 ; Mechoulam et al., 1970 ; Vemuri and Makriyannis

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Dave Hawley, Thomas Graham, Michael Stasiak, and Mike Dixon

bud has a relatively high density of glandular trichomes rich in cannabinoids and terpenes that are of medicinal and recreational interest ( Happyana et al., 2013 ). There are relatively few peer-reviewed studies on optimizing environmental parameters

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Deron Caplan, Mike Dixon, and Youbin Zheng

secondary metabolites called cannabinoids which are concentrated in the essential oils of unfertilized female flowers ( Potter, 2014 ). Over 100 unique cannabinoids have been identified ( Ahmed et al., 2008 , 2015 ; ElSohly and Slade, 2005 ; Radwan et al

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Deron Caplan, Mike Dixon, and Youbin Zheng

). The medicinal value of cannabis is attributed primarily to a group of secondary metabolites called cannabinoids which are concentrated mostly in the essential oils of unfertilized female flowers ( Potter, 2014 ). More than 100 unique cannabinoids have

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Dan Jin, Philippe Henry, Jacqueline Shan, and Jie Chen

, where most cannabinoids and terpenoids are biosynthesized and stored. Trichomes are denser in female plants and decrease in density from inflorescences, leaves, stems, to roots (which are devoid of cannabinoids). Cannabis can host disease

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Jessica D. Lubell and Mark H. Brand

Medicinal interest in hemp is attributable to its production of unique terpenophenolic substances, called cannabinoids, which are concentrated in the glandular trichomes of the plant ( Mechoulam, 1970 ; Potter, 2014 ). More than 100 cannabinoids

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Lauren E. Kurtz, Mark H. Brand, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand

Cannabis sativa (hemp, marijuana) is a dioecious species with homogametic (XX) pistillate female plants and heterogametic (XY) staminate male plants ( Moliterni et al., 2004 ). The species is cultivated for cannabinoids, most notably CBD and

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Lauren E. Kurtz, Jonathan D. Mahoney, Mark H. Brand, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand

Cannabis sativa is a diploid, dioecious species and is commonly referred to as hemp or marijuana, depending on the amount of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) produced by the plant. Female plants are preferred for the production of cannabinoids, such as

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Jessica DiMatteo, Lauren Kurtz, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand

production because female inflorescences accumulate significantly greater cannabinoid content than male inflorescences ( Small, 2015 ). Monoecious plants, which have both male and female flowers, occur occasionally in hemp, and cultivars have been selected

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Kristin E. Gibson, Alexa J. Lamm, Fallys Masambuka-Kanchewa, Paul R. Fisher, and Celina Gómez

the difficulty of developing protocols that can ensure consistency with cannabinoid content ( Chandra et al., 2010 ). Nevertheless, there are significant advantages to producing indoor-grown transplants for different phytopharmaceutical purposes, as it