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Maren E. Veatch-Blohm and Lindsay Morningstar

Kozai, 2004 ). Plants in the genus Zantedeschia K. Koch, referred to as a group as calla lilies, are important ornamental plants in demand internationally throughout the year ( Halligan et al., 2004 ; Leal-Rojas et al., 2007 ). Both white and colored

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Ying Fang, Ting Lei, Yanmei Wu, and Xuehua Jin

color variation. The calla lily is native to the family Araceae ( X. Lei et al., 2017 ; Singh et al., 1996 ). It is one of the most popular ornamental plants due to its unique shape and varied colors. Previously, we evaluated the pigment components in

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Ramona A. Reiser and Robert W. Langhans

The release of latent buds (adaptive reiteration) and aerial shoot architecture of the rhizomatous calla lily plant has been researched for pot production. Rhizome mapping has explicitly shown vegetative and floral bud positioning in relation to tissue growth and expansion. Floral initiation normally occurred only on the mother portion of rhizomes. Gibberellic acid (GA3) application enhanced this phenomenon and caused initiation on daughter ramets. Bud excision performed at planting through Day 16 microscopically revealed lack of floral initiation in dissected meristems prior to planting, transition by Day 4, elongation beginning at Day 8 and `small to medium sized spadixes present by Day 12 and 16. Floral development was similar in treated and untreated primary buds, but delayed in secondary and tertiary buds with elongation occurring by Day 16. Pretreatment of GA3 prior to planting revealed spadix presence at Day 0. Floral development correlated with ramet size showed most flowers on largest ramets but formation on all sizes with GA3 treatment. GA3 also caused increased vegetative bud formation on rhizomes.

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James S. Gerik, Ian D. Greene, Peter Beckman, and Clyde L. Elmore

Two field trials were conducted from 2002 until 2004 to evaluate several chemicals as alternatives to methyl bromide for the production of calla lily (Zantedeschia sp.) rhizomes. Various rates and chemical combinations were tested. The chemicals were applied through a drip irrigation system. The chemicals included iodomethane, chloropicrin, 1,3-dichloropropene, metham, sodium furfural, and sodium azide. None of the treatments reduced the viability of seed of mallow (Malva parviflora) previously buried in the plots. Propagules of nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and seed of mustard (Brassica nigra) were controlled by iodomethane + chloropicrin, 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin, chloropicrin alone, 1,3-dichloropropene alone, and furfural + metham sodium. Propagules of calla were controlled by all of the treatments except sodium azide and furfural + metham sodium. In the first trial, all treatments reduced the populations of soilborne plant pathogens, including Pythium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Fusarium oxysporum, except for sodium, which did not reduce the population of Phytophthora spp. In the second trial, all treatments controlled Pythium spp. but only a high rate of iodomethane + chloropicrin reduced the population of F. oxysporum. For all treatments, the incidence of disease caused by soilborne pathogens was reduced compared to the nontreated control. The number and value of harvested rhizomes were greater among all of the treatments, except for sodium azide, compared to the control. The harvested value of the crop for the best treatments increased significantly compared to the control. A successful crop of calla rhizomes can be produced by combinations of iodomethane, chloropicrin, 1,3-dichloropropene, and metham sodium.

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Juan Guillermo Cruz-Castillo

‘Utopia’ [ Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) K. Spreng] is a perennial calla developed by Chapingo Autonomous University, Mexico. The calla belongs to the Araceae family and is an ornamental native of Africa ( Kuehny, 2000 ). In Mexico it is popular

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John Clemens, Ewen A. Cameron, and Richard C. Funt

Calla (Zantedeschia Spreng.) growers were studied as members of an expanding sector in the New Zealand floricultural industry. The calla sector is characterized by diverse-size firms scattered throughout the two main islands of New Zealand. Growers differ in their skill and experience with calla production. Problems are both grower-specific (e.g., control of diseases, postharvest disorders) and sector-wide. Examples of the latter include the prioritizing and funding research, interacting with science organizations and planning sector marketing strategy. Both sets of problems have been exacerbated by the progressive withdrawal of research and extension support services traditionally provided by government agencies. There is competition between the floriculture industry and calla sector-based grower organizations. The leadership role of a strong grower organization, in this case the New Zealand Calla Council (NZCC), is seen as an essential forum for growers, and as the link between growers, exporter organizations, scientists and central government. Good communications between the industry organization and growers is essential to identify and prioritizeproblems and to transfer information to individual growers through workshops, newsletters and manuals. To maintain its effectiveness, the NZCC does not satisfy the needs of smaller growers at the expense of the larger, influential growers. Rather, it seeks to the benefit the latter by upgrading the skill level of the industry, and by undertaking tasks too large for any individual business.

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Junne-Jih Chen, Ming-Chung Liu, and Yang-Hsiu Ho

Tuber production of calla lily (Zantedeschia elliottiana Spreng cv. Super Gold) was investigated using three size ranges (7-10, 4-7, and <4 mm shoot diameter) of in vitro plantlets acclimated in either pots or soil beds in a protected house. The shoots and tubers of large plantlets exhibited higher rates of dry-matter accumulation than did those of small plantlets. The diameter of tubers harvested from pots ranged from 0.67 to 4.1 cm with median values of 2.7, 2.1, and 1.9 cm for the plants derived from large, medium, and small plantlets, respectively. Plants grown in soil beds, regardless of size, produced larger tubers than did those grown in pots. Tubers >3 cm in diameter developed on 25% and 52% of plants grown in pots and soil beds, respectively. Our results suggest that improved calla lily production could be realized by using larger in vitro plantlets as the source material and growing them in soil beds in a protected house.

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Ramona A. Reiser and Robert J. McGovern

Zantedeschia elliotiana `Flame' is a yellow calla with unique rust-colored blush, which is prone to a fungal/bacterial disease complex. Keeping calla rhizomes healthy and free of weakening by the most common fungal organisms Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, which minimizes secondary invasion and toppling by Erwinia carotova soft rot, the most prevalent cause of calla loss in production. Rhizomes were treated by pre-plant bulb dip or post plant drench either with fungicide or bactericide alone or in combination. Pot loss totaled with plants showing a lack of vigor resulted in 8%, 12%, and 14% loss in the most effective three treatments, which were: 1) the common commercial pretreatment (Champ II, Dithane, and Agtrol) 2) control plants and 3) RootShield (Trichoderma harzianum T-22). Upper (leaf and stem) plant fresh weights corresponded having heaviest weights of 47.8, 53.4, and 51.1 g and lower (bulb and root) with 129.5, 135.8, and 127.7 g/plant. The three least-effective treatments were streptomycin sulfate, Kocide 101, and ammonium bicarbonate, which showed losses of 26%, 30%, and 36%. Fresh weights coincided at 30.5, 39.9, and 36.7 g/upper portion and 117.1, 116.5, and 113.1 g/lower portion, lightest of all treatments. The remaining four fungicides with streptomycin sulfate, in order of effectiveness at 16%, 16%, 18%, and 20% loss, were Consyst, Banrot, Medallion, and Heritage. When loss exceeded 20%, flower number/plant also declined. Because plant survival and vigor were not increased with trial chemicals, the common commercial pretreatment or no treatment at all is recommended. Continued research might reveal beneficial optimum rates for other chemicals.

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Jeff S. Kuehny

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Jeff S. Kuehny, Patricia C. Branch, Gordon E. Holcomb, and Wen-Chy Chang

Dimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC, `Triathlon'), sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and streptomycin (`Agri-mycin 17') were used as dips to treat Zantedeschia rehmannii superba Engl., Zantedeschia elliotiana ×maculata (Hook.) Engl., and Zantedeschia albomaculata (W.Wats.) Baill. rhizomes to control Erwinia soft rot. A 30 min 200 ppm (mg·L−1) streptomycin dip provided the best control of Erwinia soft rot for all three Zantedeschia species and a 1-hour 10% formaldehyde dip provided the second best control of inoculated rhizomes. Rhizomes inoculated with Erwinia required more days to emerge. Chemical treatments did not affect days to emergence or final plant growth.