To measure the effect of added Ca fertilizer on the Ca concentration of snap bean pods, four snap bean cultivars were grown during Summer 1996 and 1997 at Hancock, Wis. Fertilizer treatments consisted of 80 kg of Ca per hectare applied as Ca sulfate (CaSO4·2H2O) or Ca nitrate [Ca(NO3)2], and the control (no Ca applied. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a factorial set of treatments (4 × 3). Calcium sulfate was applied at planting, whereas Ca nitrate was split applied four times at weekly intervals starting 1 week before flowering. Yield and Ca concentration in pods were determined. The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of Ca fertilizers on pod Ca concentration or yield. A strong cultivar effect was detected for both parameters measured. `Evergreen' (5.47 mg Ca per gram dry weight) had the highest pod Ca concentration and `Labrador' (4.10 mg Ca per gram dry weight) the lowest. No significant fertilizer × cultivar interactions were observed. Results for pod Ca concentration remained consistent, even when significant year effects were found for both parameters.
J.M. Quintana, H.C. Harrison, J.P. Palta, J. Nienhuis and K. Kmiecik
G.A. Picchioni and C.J. Graham
Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal (pawpaw), a deciduous tree indigenous to the eastern U.S., is being considered as a potential new fruit crop. The difficulty in establishing transplanted pawpaw seedlings has been identified as an important research need for successful cultivation of this species. We have addressed the possible benefits of soil-applied CaSO4 in establishing pawpaw seedlings on acidic, low-Ca orchard soil. Two-year-old seedling rootstocks were planted at a spacing of 1.5 m (within rows) × 5.5 m (between rows), and trickle-irrigated (with N, P, and K) for two growing seasons. Before planting, CaSO4 was applied at rates of 0, 11, and 22 t/ha and incorporated to a depth of 15 cm. Seedling trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) growth increased with increasing CaSO4 application. After the first season, increases in TCA averaged 27% and 44% greater with CaSO4 treatments (11 and 22 t/ha, respectively), as compared to the 0 t/ha treatment. This effect was accentuated by the end of the second season. Average qualitative ratings (based on seedling vigor and appearance) were also improved with CaSO4 treatment. These findings indicate that establishment of pawpaw seedling rootstocks may be improved with Ca fertilization in orchards of low-Ca status. Additional data, including seedling dry matter accumulation, will be presented.
Mongi Zekri and Lawrence R. Parsons
We determined whether the ability of sour orange seedlings to withstand saline irrigation water could be improved by the addition of calcium to the water. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were treated for 4 months with a nutrient solution containing either no NaCl, 40 mm NaCI, or 40 mm NaCl plus various concentrations of CaSO4, CaCl2, or KCl. After 4 months, the NaCl alone reduced root and shoot dry weights by ≈ 30% with no leaf necrosis. Addition of 1, 5, or 7.5 mm CaSO4 to solutions containing 40 mm NaCl significantly inhibited the NaCl-induced reductions in shoot dry weight. Addition of 7.5 mm CaCl2 or 7 mm KCl to the NaCl solution reduced leaf Na, but increased Cl to the toxicity level; hence, growth was not improved. The beneficial effect of CaSO4 was mainly attributed to a reduction in the accumulation of Na and Cl below the toxicity level in the leaves (0.4% and 0.5%, respectively) without a major increase in total dissolved salts. This study demonstrated that the beneficial effect of adding Ca depended on the anion associated with the Ca salt. Calcium sulfate, but not CaCl2, was able to overcome the damaging effect of NaCl to sour orange seedlings.
K. Dale Ritchey and Carol M. Schumann
Concern about over-harvesting wild populations of ramps (Allium tricoccum Ait.) has led to interest in planting ramps as an under-story agroforestry crop. To see if ramps would respond to Ca amendments in an acidic site, we planted three types of ramps bulbs and broadcast slaked lime (3316 kg·ha–1) or gypsum (7704 kg·ha–1) on a Rayne silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludults). After 3 years, surface-applied slaked lime raised Ca levels as deep as the 22.5 to 30 cm layer, which showed an increase of 0.34 cmolc·kg–1, and increased pH in the 2.5 to 5.0 cm layer from 3.96 to 4.67. Gypsum application raised Ca concentration in the 22.5 to 30 cm layer from 0.2 in the control to 0.7 cmolc·kg–1, but had little effect on pH anywhere in the profile. In plots harvested after 2 years, both amendments increased plant survival and per-plant weight, compared to controls. In plots harvested after 3 years, ramps grown in the slaked lime treatment were heavier than in the gypsum treatment indicating that slaked lime, which raised pH as well as supplied Ca, was probably the better amendment. Single or joined bulbs survived better than bulbs obtained by breaking joined bulbs in two. While more research is needed to overcome limitations to commercial planting of ramps in acidic sites, our data show that Ca application is beneficial to growth and survival of ramps.
Eugene K. Blythe and Donald J. Merhaut
.4–9.5 mm) : 18 peatmoss : 7 washed plaster sand (by volume) blend, amended with 0.59 kg·m −3 ultrafine calcium sulfate (Western Mining and Minerals, Apex, Nev.). Bulk density of the substrate was 0.43 g·cm −3 . On 10 June 2005, 100 no. 1 containers (black
Matthew Arrington and Lisa Wasko DeVetter
( Table 2 ). Leaf Ca concentrations were not increased with applications of calcium chloride or calcium sulfate, and the use of the low or high label rates did not impact leaf or fruit concentrations in our study ( Table 2 ). Leaf Ca concentrations in
Hugo Ramirez, Mary Torcates, Jose Perez, Josefina Rodriguez and Marin E. Perez
The response of different doses of calcium sulfate or phosphogypsum (PG) on several postharvest quality parameters of `Laguna' cantaloupe hybrid were analyzed in the semi-arid San Francisco experiment station (UCLA), located in the Lara state, Venezuela. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four treatments (0, 300, 600, and 1200 kg/ha, PG) with five replications. The PG was surface-spread on the irrigation furrows, 1 day before sowing. The fruits were harvested at maturity and stored under an average temperature of 28°C for posterior quality analysis. The PG treatments did not have any effect on the studied parameters: total soluble solids (°Brix), consistency (kg/cm2), diameter, and cavity of the fruit, pulp thickness, and dry and fresh matter. All of the parameters evaluated decreased during the 6 days of storage. These results could be because of the low doses of PG used or because the supply of calcium was not a limitation in these soils.
Camille Esmel*, John R. Duval, E.H. Simonne and Steven A. Sargent
Strawberries are a high value commodity with a short shelf life. Florida is the largest producer of winter strawberries in the United States with 2,790 hectares of production, 90% are located in Hillsborough County. Many Florida growers apply additional calcium (Ca) as a foliar spray despite the lack of conclusive evidence of an increase in fruit quality or yield. It is believed that additional Ca will improve cell wall integrity through Ca linkages with pectins with in the cell wall and increase fruit firmness. Preharvest applications of calcium chloride have shown to delay the ripening of strawberry fruit and mold development. The objectives of this two year study were to determine the effects of Ca on yield, growth, and postharvest quality of strawberry when applied to the soil or as a foliar spray. `Sweet Charlie' strawberry plants were grown on a Seffner fine sand in Dover, Fla. The experimental design was a split-block replicated four times with soil and foliar Ca applications. Main plots consisted of a broadcast preplant incorporation of gypsum (calcium sulfate) 0 kg·ha-1, 36.7 kg·ha-1, and 73.4 kg·ha-1. Sub-plots consisted of foliar applications of 400 mg·L-1 Ca from calcium sulfate, 400 and 800 mg·L-1 Ca from calcium chloride and a water control applied weekly throughout the 2002-03 and 2003-04 growing season. Yield data was collected twice weekly through out the growing season. Fruits were graded for quality based upon size, visual appearance of pathogens degradation, frost/water damage, and misshapen form. Calcium content was determined for leaves, fruit, and calyxes in January and March. Postharvest quality evaluations of pH, titratable acidy, soluble solids, and firmness (Instron 4411) were determined in January and March.
Michael R. Evans, Bernard W. Krumpelman, Ramsey Sealy and Craig S. Rothrock
Vinca (Catharanthus roseus) is a common annual bedding plant species that is susceptible to root and stem rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae. The experimental design was a 6×2×1 factorial with a total of 12 treatment combinations that had five replications and was repeated twice. Vinca seeds were planted in the middle nine plugs of a 5×5 five-milliliter round plug tray filled with sphagnum peat (control) or peat amended with 2.1 kg/m3 calcitic lime, 5.9 and 7.3 kg/m3 potassium silicate alone and combined with 3.0 kg/m3 calcium sulfate. A peat control drenched with metalaxyl after inoculation was also included. After germination, when the seedlings had one true leaf, half of the treatments were inoculated with 500 cfu of Phytophthora nicotianae per plug cell while the other half remained uninoculated. The percentage of germination for the potassium silicate combined with calcium sulfate (KSCS) (79% and 78%) was similar to the control (86%) and the metalaxyl treatment (83%), whereas the potassium silicate alone had poorer germination (69% and 71%) and plant growth. The percentage of mortality for the KSCS treatment (6% and 14%) was similar to the metalaxyl treatment (9%) but was significantly less than the control (100%). The average dry shoot and root weights for the KSCS treatments (4.4 and 4.9 mg; 2.7 and 2.2 mg) were similar to the metalaxyl treatment (5.0 and 3.6 mg) and the uninoculated control (5.0 and 3.2 mg), but were higher than the potassium silicate treatment alone (2.1 and 1.6 mg; 0.7 and 0.6 mg).
Michael Thornton, James Torell and Daryl Richardson
A field study was conducted to determine the relationship between pungency, soluble solids content, and susceptibility to neck rot in onions. `Golden Cascade', `Sweet Amber', `Valdez', and `Vega' onions were planted in a field with low soil S content. Sulfur, as coarse-ground calcium sulfate, was applied as a band before planting. After harvest, yield was determined and a sample of jumbo onions was taken from each plot to determine pungency, dry matter content, and soluble solids content. Healthy bulbs were returned to storage and evaluated for neck rot after 4 months. Yield, grade, and neck rot incidence after storage were not affected by S treatments. However, there was a trend toward lower neck rot incidence at the highest S application rate (160 lb/acre). Pungency of jumbo onions increased after the application of S as gypsum. `Sweet Amber' and `Valdez' were less pungent than `Golden Cascade' or `Vega'. Neck rot susceptibility was evaluated with an inoculation test of detached bulb scales. Growth and sporulation of the neck rot pathogen Botrytis allii were reduced by S application. Pungency and neck rot susceptibility were negatively correlated.