Axillary shoots of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), induced in vitro with cytokinins (BA or TDZ), elongated and produced leaves only in the presence of cotyledons and/or roots. Detached axillary shoots, which do not grow in `vitro under conventional tissue culture protocols, rooted with auxin and developed normally in vivo. Detached axillary shoots from cotyledonary nodes and single-node cuttings from mature plants were induced to elongate and produce normal leaves in the presence of 20,000 ppm CO2 and a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 150 to 200 μmol·s-1·m-2. Subculture nodal cuttings continued to elongate and produce leaves under elevated CO2 and light levels, and some formed roots. Subculture of microcuttings under CO2 enrichment could be the basis for a rapid system of micropropagation for cacao. Chemical names used: N -(phenylmethyl) -1 H -purin-6-amine (BA); 1 H -indole-3-butyric `acid (IBA); α -naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); thidiazuron (TDZ).
Antonio Figueira, Anna Whipkey, and Jules Janick
R. Paul Baker, Karl H. Hasenstein, and Michael S. Zavada
In order to characterize the self-incompatibility system in Theobroma cacao, the levels of ethylene, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and abscisic acid (ABA) were determined after pollination with compatible and incompatible pollen and in unpollinated flowers. Pollen tube growth rates after incompatible and compatible pollinations were identical, and the majority of the pollen tubes reached the ovules between 12 and 20 hours after pollination. ABA levels rose in incompatibly pollinated flowers, and fell in compatibly pollinated flowers, prior to pollen tube—ovule contact. Ethylene evolution remained stable in compatibly pollinated flowers and rose in incompatibly pollinated flowers. IAA concentrations increased in compatibly pollinated flowers, and remained stable in incompatibly pollinated flowers after pollination and subsequent to pollen tube—ovule contact.
Antonio Figueira and Jules Janick
In vitro culture of axillary cotyledonary shoots of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao) under increasing CO2 concentration from ambient to 24,000 ppm (culture tube levels) significantly increased total shoot elongation, number of leaves, leaf area per explant, and shoot dry and fresh weight. Although light was necessary for the CO2 response, the effect of various photon fluxes was not significant for the measured growth parameters. Net photosynthesis estimated on the basis of CO2 depletion in culture tubes increased 3.5 times from 463 to 2639 ppm CO2, and increased 1.5 times from 2639 to 14,849 ppm CO2, but declined from 14,849 to 24,015 ppm CO2. Ethylene concentration in culture vessels increased under enriched CO2 conditions. Depletion of nutrients (fructose, K, Ca, Mg, and P) from the medium was increased under enriched CO2 conditions.
Harry C. Bittenbender, Loren D. Gautz, Ed Seguine, and Jason L. Myers
Fermentation is a necessary step in the processing of cacao for chocolate ( Sukha and Seguine, 2015 ). Fermentation of the mucilage-covered beans is initiated by naturally present microorganisms such as yeasts, acetic and lactic acid forming
Jane Kahia, Siaka Kone, Lucien Diby, Georges Ngoran, Colombe Dadjo, and Christophe Kouame
Cacao ( Theobroma cacao , Malvaceae) is a crop of major importance for the livelihoods of small-scale farmers and ecosystems in many tropical regions. About 72% of the world’s cocoa is produced in Africa, with Côte d’Ivoire being the top producer at
R.J. Schnell, C.T. Olano, J.S. Brown, A.W. Meerow, C. Cervantes-Martinez, C. Nagai, and J.C. Motamayor
The authors wish to thank Tom Menezes of Hawaii Gold Cacao Tree Inc.for the selection of the productive and unproductive seedlings.
Samantha Jay Forbes, Guiliana Mustiga, Alberto Romero, Tobin David Northfield, Smilja Lambert, and Juan Carlos Motamayor
Cacao is a neotropical species originating in the lowland rainforests of South America ( Motamayor et al., 2002 ) that develops large pods (fruit), each containing an average of 30 to 40 seeds ( Lima et al., 2011 ). After they have been fermented
Edward J. Boza, Juan Carlos Motamayor, Freddy M. Amores, Sergio Cedeño-Amador, Cecile L. Tondo, Donald S. Livingstone III, Raymond J. Schnell, and Osman A. Gutiérrez
Cacao is a diploid (2n = 2x = 20) perennial tropical tree belonging to the family Sterculiaceae (Malvaceae sensu lato ), order Malvales ( Alverson et al., 1999 ; Cope, 1984 ). It is native to the humid neotropics between latitudes 20° S and 20° N
David N. Kuhn, Giri Narasimhan, Kyoko Nakamura, J. Steven Brown, Raymond J. Schnell, and Alan W. Meerow
the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (USDA-ARS SHRS) Cacao Program, that supported in part this research.
Ricardo Goenaga, Mark Guiltinan, Siela Maximova, Ed Seguine, and Heber Irizarry
Cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) has great potential as a component of a small tropical farming system. It adapts to a wide range of soils, climatic conditions, grows well under minimum tillage, adapts to temporary intercropping, has the potential of being