Plant growth, visual quality and flowering were assessed for 14 butterfly bush (Buddleja) taxa planted in western Florida (Milton) and central southern Florida (Fort Pierce). In both locations, `Violet Eyes' butterfly bush (B. weyeriana × B. lindleyana), `Honeycomb' butterfly bush (B. × weyeriana), `Moonlight' butterfly bush (B. × weyeriana), and `Sungold' butterfly bush (B. × weyeriana) generally had the greatest growth index and shoot dry weight of all cultivars. In Fort Pierce and Milton, flower dry weights of `White Profusion' butterfly bush (B. davidii), `Nanho Alba' butterfly bush (B. davidii var. nanhoensis), and `Dartmoor' butterfly bush (B. davidii × B. davidii var. nanhoensis) were among the highest as compared to other cultivars at each site, although in Milton, `Gloster' butterfly bush (B. lindleyana), japanese butterfly bush (B. japonica) and `Honeycomb' butterfly bush also had high flower dry weights. Peak plant performance varied by month, cultivar and location. At 12 weeks, plant form and color were above average for each cultivar with the exception of `Black Knight' butterfly bush (B. davidii), lindley's butterfly bush (B. lindleyana), and `Gloster' butterfly bush in the Fort Pierce location only. After 24 weeks at each location, visual quality was above average for `Black Knight', `Dartmoor', `Gloster', `Honeycomb', `Violet Eyes', and japanese butterfly bush. Peak flowering times varied with cultivar and location. At 24 weeks, flowering of `White Profusion', `Nanho Alba', `Nanho Blue', and `Nanho Purple' butterfly bush grown in Fort Pierce was 25% to 40% less than that of the same cultivars grown in Milton. At 24 weeks, `Dartmoor' had the most flowers in both locations, covering 75% of the plant canopy.
Sandra B. Wilson, Laurie K. Mecca, Mack Thetford, and Josiah S. Raymer
Sandra B. Wilson, Laurie K. Mecca, Judith A. Gersony, Mack Thetford, and Josiah S. Raymer
Because of its weedy nature, extensive use in the landscape, numerous cultivars, and history as an invasive plant in other countries, butterfly bush (Buddleja) was an appropriate candidate to evaluate for seed production and germination in Florida. Seed production was quantified for 14 butterfly bush taxa planted in western Florida (Milton) and central southern Florida (Fort Pierce). Each of the 14 taxa evaluated produced seed. In Fort Pierce, japanese butterfly bush (B. japonica) had the greatest capsule weight and `Gloster' butterfly bush (B. lindleyana) had the second greatest capsule weight as compared to other taxa. In Milton, `Gloster' had the greatest capsule weight and japanese butterfly bush and `Nanho Alba' butterfly bush (B. davidii var.nanhoensis) had the second greatest capsule weights as compared to other taxa. The shape and number of seed capsules per infructescence varied with cultivar. Seeds were cleaned and germinated in germination boxes with and without light at 20/10, 25/15, 30/20 and 35/25 °C (68.0/50.0, 77.0/59.0, 86.0/68.0 and 95.0/77.0 °F). Regardless of temperature or cultivar, light was required for germination. At each temperature, `Nanho Blue' butterfly bush (B. davidii var. nanhoensis) and `Moonlight' butterfly bush (B. × weyeriana) had highest germination rates (63-74%) as compared to other taxa.
Wenhao Dai and Victoria Magnusson
, known as butterfly bush, is commonly used for landscaping. Butterfly bush was imported to North America from China ≈1900s as a garden shrub. It is a fast-growing deciduous shrub reaching 1 to 5 m tall and is often lanky and wide-spreading. Its heavy
Bruce L. Dunn and Jon T. Lindstrom
Buddleja L., commonly known as butterfly bush, encompasses ≈125 species distributed throughout most of the world, including North and South America, Asia, and Africa ( Norman, 2000 ). The majority of the species are either diploid (2 n = 38
William A. Smith and Mark H. Brand
Buddleja davidii Franch., commonly called butterfly bush, is a large woody subshrub with long, colorful, fragrant floral panicles, which attract hummingbirds and butterflies. It was originally introduced to the United States from China and is a
Jon T. Lindstrom, Gregory T. Bujarski, and Brent M. Burkett
Buddleja indica Lam. is encountered frequently as a houseplant or a conservatory specimen and is attractive ornamentally for its oak-shaped foliage. Buddleja indica, a tetraploid African species, 2n = 76, was crossed to the Asiatic tetraploid species B. davidii Franch. The F1 generation was intermediate in foliage character between the two parents. Flowers of the F1 were either white or light lavender in color and the number of flowers per inflorescence was intermediate between the parents. The F1 plants were fertile. These hybrids might be suitable for greenhouse or container culture due to their attractive foliage and floral display.
Jeffrey H. Gillman, Mark W. Rieger, Michael A. Dirr, and S. Kristine Braman
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of drought stress on the susceptibility of Buddleia davidii Franch. `Pink Delight' to the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). In the first experiment, drought stress was imposed by withholding water until predawn xylem pressure potential fell below -1 MPa. Shoot growth was 75% less in drought-stressed than in nonstressed plants. Mite population densities were not affected, but noninfested leaf area was 14% higher, and degree of mite damage was lower, in nonstressed plants. Evidently, the greater amount of new growth in nonstressed plants leads to lower spider mite densities by diluting populations. In a second experiment, nonstressed B. davidii `Pink Delight' plants were watered every 1 to 2 days and drought-stressed plants were watered every 3 days. Spider mite populations were monitored by sampling newly expanded and mature foliage. Mite populations on mature foliage were not affected by stress, but stressed plants grew less and had larger spider mite populations on their newly expanded foliage than did nonstressed plants.
Jeffrey H. Gillman, Michael A. Dirr, and S. Kristine Braman
Buddleia taxa were assessed for two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) resistance using a leaf disk bioassay, a novel shell vial bioassay and a field trial. Leaf pubescence and chemistry were examined for their role in two-spotted spider mite resistance. Results from bioassays and field sampling identified highly resistant taxa including B. fallowiana Balif. `Alba' and B. davidii × B. fallowiana Franch. `Cornwall Blue' as well as susceptible taxa including B. davidii Franch. `African Queen' and B. lindleyana Fort. ex Lindl. `Gloster'. The shell vial bioassay was an accurate predictor of field resistance to spider mite. Leaf pubescence was quantified by calculating the collective length of trichome branches per square millimeter of leaf surface area [effective branch length (EBL)]. EBL values ranged from 39 to 162 mm·mm-2 of leaf surface area among Buddleia taxa. Resistance was positively correlated with increased pubescence. Removal of pubescence by peeling resulted in increased oviposition of two-spotted spider mites. Exposing female two-spotted spider mites to a methylene chloride extract of B. davidii × B. fallowiana `Cornwall Blue' using a modified shell vial bioassay resulted in reduced oviposition and a methylene chloride extract of B. davidii `African Queen' resulted in no difference in oviposition when compared with a control. While pubescence is the best indicator of resistance to the two-spotted spider mite in Buddleia taxa, it is possible that defensive compounds are involved.
Raymond A. Cloyd, Cindy L. Galle, Stephen R. Keith, and Kenneth E. Kemp
twospotted spider mite. Twenty-five ‘Nanho Purple’ butterfly bush ( Buddlei davidii ) plants were obtained from a local nursery with no prior treatment of pesticides (insecticides, miticides, and/or fungicides). The plants were transplanted into 1.9-L