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Azusa Sato, Hiroshi Okubo, and Kazuyuki Saitou

The aim of this study was to investigate physiological and biochemical mechanisms of shoot elongation after cold period in hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis L. cv. Delft Blue). Hyacinth shoot rapidly elongated during hydro-culture period in cooled bulbs, but not in non-cooled bulbs. Alpha-amylase (EC is a key enzyme involved in starch hydrolysis. Alpha-amylase activity increased during the cold storage period and was low during rapid shoot elongation in hyacinth. In the non-cooled bulbs, its activity remained at the similar level. Sucrose content increased during the cold storage period in the shoot, but not in the scales. We, for the first time, isolated cDNA for cold-responsive alpha-amylase gene (HoAmy1A, accession No. AB198975) from hyacinth, and presented that HoAmy1A expression increased in the scale during the cold storage period, but the level was very low during shoot elongation. We also found that promoter region of HoAmy1A contained CArG element, which is related to the response to low temperature. In tulip (Tulipa genesriana L.), the most studied bulbous plant, dramatic increase in alpha-amylase activity and translocation of sugars from the scales to shoot occurred during the growth stage, following cold treatment (Komiyama et al., 1997; Lambrechts et al., 1994). Our results suggest that there are two types (tulip and hyacinth types) of sprouting mechanisms in bulbous plants.

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Naza Azizbekova, Christia M. Roberts, Stefanie Butland, and Brian Ellis

Scilla peruviana is a bulbous plant whose distribution extends from South Africa, into Europe and Asia. It belongs to the family Liliaceae (subclass Monocotyledonae). S. peruviana is an attractive floral species with excellent commercial potential, but it does not produce many bulblets and its multiplication rate is very low. Increasing the multiplication rate, and regulation of its growth and development, cannot be achieved without knowledge of its basic patterns of ontogenesis. We studied the annual growth and development of S. peruviana, from initiation until differentiation, giving special attention to cytological changes at the apical meristem. We also investigated the cytophysiological changes occurring in scales during ontogenesis. Two generations of daughter bulbs are present in each mother bulb. Flowering of the mother bulb coincides with vegetative development of the apical meristem of the primary daughter bulb (March-April). During gradual senescence of leaves and roots of the mother bulb, the apical meristem of the primary daughter bulb undergoes a transition from vegetative to prefloral development (June). Intensive flower organ differentiation occurs in the daughter bulb during the mother bulb's rest period (July–August). Initiation of the apical meristem of the secondary daughter bulb occurs within the primary daughter bulb, which is itself enclosed within the mother bulb (August). The development of the apical meristem of a daughter bulb, from its initiation until flowering, thus occurs without interruption and takes ≈20 months. By modifying external factors such as temperature and growth regulators, we can now control time of flowering and increase the multiplication rate of S. peruviana.

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Christopher B. Cerveny and William B. Miller

laboratory and practical conditions Acta Hort. 673 243 247 Kamerbeek, G.A. de Munk, W.J. 1976 A review of ethylene effects in bulbous plants Sci. Hort. 4 101 115 King, J.A. Smith, K

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Lijuan Fan, Yu Gao, Karl H. Hasenstein, and Ling Wang

The Iridaceae is a family of perennial, herbaceous, and bulbous plants that belong to the order Asparagales, taking their name from the genus Iris . There are more than 2000 species in this family ( Peter and Manning, 2008 ). The genus Iris is

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Junhuo Cai, Junjun Fan, Xuying Wei, and Lu Zhang

industrial exploitation of other bulbous plants. Materials and Methods Plant materials and growth conditions. All pot experiments were performed outdoors in the flower gardens of Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China (lat. 28.76°N, long

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Anna Kapczyńska and Małgorzata Malik

retardants to control growth of lachenalia. Many studies have been conducted on the use of plant growth retardants in the cultivation of well-known ornamental bulbous plants ( Krug et al., 2006a , 2006b ; Salachna and Zawadzińska, 2013 ), but De Hertogh

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Yuanyuan Miao, Qiaosheng Guo, Zaibiao Zhu, Xiaohua Yang, Changlin Wang, Yuan Sun, and Li Liu

b) observed that a high GA content promotes stolon elongation and inhibits storage organ (tuber) formation. In terms of bulbing ability in bulbous plants, Rice et al. (1983) enhanced tulip bulb production in vitro by soaking adventitious shoots

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Xi Li, Dongqin Tang, and Yimin Shi

Narcissus pseudonarcissus , a flowering bulbous plant of the Amaryllidaceae family, is a typical Mediterranean genus of geophyte, with unique flower shape (with cup-shaped or crown-like corona) and outstanding flower color ( Fernandes, 1968 ). In

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Nan Tang, Xiuting Ju, Yafan Hu, Rulong Jia, and Daocheng Tang

Lilium davidii var. unicolor is one of the most important bulbous plants because of its showy flowers and edible and medicinal values. This plant is native to China and grown widely around the world. L. davidii var. unicolor is quite suitable

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Jaser A. Aljaser and Neil O. Anderson

.F. 2005 Floriculture: Principles and species. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ Ehrich, L. 2013 Flowering in South African Iridaceae, p. 248–269. In: K.G. Ramawat and J.M. Merillon (eds.). Bulbous plants: Biotechnology. CRC Press, Boca Raton