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Bruce W. Wood

Dormant season sprays of hydrogen cyanamide applied to pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees advanced budbreak, flowering, and shuck dehiscence. Hydrogen cyanamide was applied to dormant branches at ≈60, 45, 30, and 15 days before normal vegetative budbreak at rates of 0, 120, 240, 480, and 960 mm (corresponding to ≈0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 4%, solutions for 3 years). Depending on treatment, hydrogen cyanamide advanced budbreak by as much as 17 days, female and male flower maturity by up to 15 days, and nut ripening by as much as 14 days without reducing nut yield or causing phytotoxicity. Hydrogen cyanamide applied at 480 to 960 mm ≈60 days before expected budbreak possibly may be used commercially to advance ripening, manipulate time of pollen dispersal, and substitute for chilling when pecan is grown in mild environments.

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Barrett C. Wilson, Jeff L. Sibley and James E. Altland

A study evaluating the effects of varying levels of chilling on foliar budbreak of linden (Tilia spp.) culivars was initiated in 1999 in Auburn, Ala. [lat. 32°36'N, long. 85°29'W, elevation 709 ft (216m), USDA Hardiness Zone 8a]. Littleleaf linden (T. cordata) `Greenspire' and `Fairview' required the most chilling to produce measurable budbreak and exhibited the lowest budbreak percentages. Silver linden (T. tomentosa) `Sterling' and american linden (T. americana) `Redmond' needed the fewest hours of chilling to produce budbreak and exhibited the highest budbreak percentages. `Sterling' was the top performer in foliar budbreak percentage and in subsequent growth. Although `Redmond' attained high budbreak numbers, its overall growth during the following growing season was inferior to that of `Sterling', `Greenspire' and `Fairview'. This information can contribute to the development of regional planting recommendations, which can aid in the selection of lindens suitable for the area in which they will be grown. Calculated r2 values indicated the models used provided a good fit to the data for all cultivars.

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G.E. Jones and B.M. Cregg

1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail cregg@msu.edu . We thank Alison Heins and Sara Tanis for their assistance recording budbreak information, Xuewen Huang for his statistical advice, the

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William R. Okie and Bryan Blackburn

). Higher numbers of hours 7.2 °C or less (originally reported as 45 °F) correlated with normal budbreak and fruit set in Georgia. In years with fewer hours by 15 Feb., certain cultivars bloomed erratically and fruit set was poor ( Weinberger, 1950a ). The

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Roberto Hauagge and James N. Cummins

Abbreviations: BB, percent terminal budbreak; BDS, bud development stage; CR, chilling requirement; CU, chill unit; D50, number of days for 50% terminal budbreak; GDH, growing degree hours. 1 Present address: IAPAR-Instituto Agronômico do Paraná

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Amir Rezazadeh and Eric T. Stafne

chilling can result in delayed budbreak, uneven budbreak, reduced shoots and cluster development, change in fruit ripening, and an overall decrease in vine productivity ( Dokoozlian, 1999 ; Londo and Johnson, 2014 ). Low-chill cultivars planted in cold

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William R. Okie and Bryan Blackburn

In areas with cold winters, chilling is more than adequate for normal budbreak and growth of fruit crops, and time of bloom is primarily dependent on onset of warmer temperatures. In the southeastern United States and similar climates, winter

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A. Maaike Wubs, Ep Heuvelink, Leo F.M. Marcelis, Robert C.O. Okello, Alisa Shlyuykova, Gerhard H. Buck-Sorlin and Jan Vos

from the cut (e.g., Zieslin and Halevy, 1976 ). Furthermore, the degree of budbreak on a shoot remainder is hypothesized to depend on the changes that shoot removal itself brings about in the conditions of the shoot remainder. Besides removing within

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A. Maaike Wubs, Ep Heuvelink, Leo F.M. Marcelis, Gerhard H. Buck-Sorlin and Jan Vos

In cut rose crops, harvest of a mature shoot triggers axillary buds on the remainder of the shoot to grow. This budbreak is an important event in a cut rose crop because it is one of the factors determining the number of harvestable shoots, next to

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Roberto Hauagge and James N. Cummins

Abbreviations: BB, percent terminal budbreak; BDS, bud development stage; CR, chilling requirement; CU, chill unit; D50, number of days for 50% terminal budbreak; GDH, growing degree hours. 1 Present address: IAPAR-Instituto Agronômico do Paraná