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Ting Min, En-chao Liu, Jun Xie, Yang Yi, Li-mei Wang, You-wei Ai, and Hong-xun Wang

enzymatic browning ( Eissa et al., 2006 ; Pma, 2006 ; Son et al., 2015 ). At present, the methods for controlling the browning of lotus root mainly include chemical treatment ( Kwon and Baek, 2014 ; Lu et al., 2007 ), modified atmosphere (MA) packaging

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Sylvie Jenni, Pierre Dutilleul, Stephen Yamasaki, and Nicolas Tremblay

To investigate whether brown bead can be reduced by various cultural practices, a 3-year field study was conducted on a 600-acre broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) farm in southwestern Quebec. Factors studied included N fertilization, soil series, previous crop, season of bed forming, or planting method. Four N treatments were randomly applied to two blocks in 41 fields of `Everest' broccoli: 85-0-0, 85-54-0, 85-54-54, and 85-54-108; the first number indicating N (kg·ha-1) applied before planting; the second, N applied 5 weeks after planting; and the last, N applied 7 weeks after planting. Over the 3-year study, brown bead affected 11% of the broccoli heads and accounted for one-third of the rejects. Brown bead severity on individual heads was described on a 0-8 scale. Plots with greater N applications (i.e., 85-54-54, 85-54-108) had significantly (P < 0.001) lower proportions of plants with brown bead compared with plots with lower N applications. Brown bead incidence reacted similarly from year to year to N fertilization and soil type. However, fertilization interacted with soil type. The less N was applied, the more soil effect was important. Soil effect was maximum at a low N level (85-0-0) with 2.5 times more plants showing brown bead in the Saint Blaise series than in the Sainte Rosalie series. Bed type, previous crop, or planting type did not affect the incidence of brown bead.

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Dariusz P. Malinowski, Robert S. Brown, and William E. Pinchak

fall. The flowers last 1 d and colors range from white through pink to red, depending on species, with a dark red or brown center eye. Recently developed cultivars such as ‘Fantasia’ (PP11,853) and ‘Plum Crazy’ (PP11,854) have lavender flowers

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Aref A. Abdul-Baki, Clyde Wilson, George E. Brown Jr., Lidia M. Carrera, Sam Aslan, Sam Cobb, and Tim Burke

The mineral concentration of bearing `Mejhool' date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) trees was investigated with the objective of identifying the cause of browning and dieback of distal parts of the fruit-bearing strands. Tissue analyses of leaves, fruits, healthy and dead portions of fruit-bearing strands indicated that tissue browning and dieback appeared to be associated with a high concentration of certain mineral elements. A comparison of mineral concentration between healthy and dead tissue of the fruit-bearing strands showed no significant increase in K, Cu, B, Zn, and Na, but very high increases in the concentrations of P, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, and Fe. The levels of P, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, and Fe in the distal part of the fruit-bearing strand over a 3-year average were 5, 18, 12, 3, 11, and 2 times, respectively, higher than those in the healthy, proximal part of the strand. Mineral concentrations of leaves and mature fruits were determined for comparison with those in fruit-bearing strands.

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Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Peter Toivonen, and Linda Herbert

°C storage. After 7 d, the packages were removed from storage; apple slices were removed and assessed for cut-edge browning. Previous research indicated cut-edge browning is stable between 7 and 21 d after cutting ( Toivonen et al., 2003 ). Lightness

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Elena de Castro, Bill Biasi, Elizabeth Mitcham, Stuart Tustin, David Tanner, and Jennifer Jobling

between ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Lady Williams.’ Since then, it has been sought for its sweet–tart flavor and crunchy texture. However, in recent years Pink Lady apples have shown a susceptibility to developing internal browning in storage. Controlled

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En-chao Liu, Li-fang Niu, Yang Yi, Li-mei Wang, You-wei Ai, Yun Zhao, Hong-xun Wang, and Ting Min

difficult to cut, lotus root is more suitable for processing into fresh-cut produce ( Christudass et al., 2012 ). Although fresh-cut lotus is a convenient and fast food, it is prone to browning during processing and storage. This has resulted in a short

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Rui Sun, Hui Li, Qiong Zhang, Dongmei Chen, Fengqiu Yang, Yongbo Zhao, Yi Wang, Yuepeng Han, Xinzhong Zhang, and Zhenhai Han

post-harvest flesh browning in many fruits, including apple. The browning of fresh-cut apple mainly results from enzymatic browning of phenolic compounds, catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the flesh tissue ( Gil et al., 1998 ). Therefore, flesh

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Cindy B.S. Tong, Hsueh-Yuan Chang, Jennifer K. Boldt, Yizhou B. Ma, Jennifer R. DeEll, Renae E. Moran, Gaétan Bourgeois, and Dominique Plouffe

Multiple types of flesh browning can occur as storage disorders in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple ( Malus × domestica ) fruit. Three of the browning disorders that occur within the cortex have been previously described as “soggy breakdown” ( Watkins et al

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Taku Shimizu, Kazuma Okada, Shigeki Moriya, Sadao Komori, and Kazuyuki Abe

vegetables, including apple ( Malus × domestica ), causes their surfaces to turn a brownish color ( Pristijono et al., 2006 ). These color changes (hereinafter referred to as “browning”) are caused by phenolic oxidation reactions catalyzed by polyphenol