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Ertan Yildirim, Huseyin Karlidag, Metin Turan, Atilla Dursun, and Fahrettin Goktepe

investigate the effects of PGPR inoculations with manure on plant growth parameters, nutrient uptake, and yield of broccoli in comparison with mineral fertilizer application under field conditions. Materials and Methods Plant material. Broccoli ‘Monet F1

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Hirofumi Terai, Alley E. Watada, Charles A. Murphy, and William P. Wergin

Structural changes in chloroplasts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) florets during senescence were examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with freeze-fracture technique, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to better understand the process of chloroplast degradation, particularly at the advanced stage of senescence. Light microscopy revealed that chloroplasts, which initially were intact and green, became obscure in shape, and their color faded during senescence. Small, colored particles appeared in cells as the florets approached the final stage of senescence and became full- to dark-yellow in color. Scanning electron microscopy showed that stroma thylakoids in the chloroplast initially were parallel to each other and grana thylakoids were tightly stacked. As senescence advanced, the grana thylakoids degenerated and formed globules. The globules became larger by aggregation as senescence progressed, and the large globules, called “thylakoid plexus,” formed numerous vesicles. The vesicles ultimately were expelled into the cytosol, and the light microscope revealed many colored particles in the senescent cells. These results indicate that the degradation of chloroplasts in broccoli florets progresses systematically, with the final product being colored particles, which are visible in yellow broccoli sepal cells.

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M.S. Tian, Talebul Islam, D.G. Stevenson, and D.E. Irving

Color, ethylene production and respiration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) dipped in hot water (45 °C, 10 minutes; 47 °C, 7.5 minutes; and 20 °C, 10 minutes as control) were measured. Hot-water treatment (HWT) delayed yellowing. Compared to the control, ethylene production and respiration in broccoli dipped at 45 °C decreased but recovered, and rates of both were enhanced after 24 and 48 hours, respectively, at 20 °C in darkness. There was no recovery of ethylene production or respiration in broccoli dipped at 47 °C. Following HWT of 47 °C for 7.5 minutes, respiration, starch, sucrose, and soluble protein content of florets and stems decreased dramatically during the first 10 to 24 hours after harvest. At the same time, fructose contents in florets and stems increased. Glucose increased in the florets but decreased within 24 hours in stems. Thereafter, glucose and fructose in florets and stems decreased. Sucrose content in florets and stems increased dramatically within a short period of treatment (<10 hours) and then declined. Protein in HWT florets and stems decreased during the first 24 hours and then increased until 72 hours. Ammonia content was lower in HWT broccoli during the first 24 hours and then increased above the level in the controls.

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Merete Hansen, Peter Møller, Hilmer Sørensen, and Marita Cantwell de Trejo

. 4 Dept. of Vegetable Crops, Mann Laboratory. This study was funded by grants from the Danish Agricultural and Veterinary Research Council (grant no 13-4332) and the Danish Research Academy. We thank Mann Packing Co., Salinas, Calif., for broccoli

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J.B. Million, J.E. Barrett, T.A. Nell, and D.G. Clark

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate media component effects on paclobutrazol activity. In Expts. 1 and 2, a broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) seedling bioassay was used to compare the activity of paclobutrazol at six concentrations (0-0.32 mg·L-1). Results from Expt. 1 indicated that an average of 4-, 5-, and 10-fold higher concentrations were required in old composted pine bark, fresh pine bark, and composted pine bark samples, respectively, to achieve the same activity observed in sphagnum peatmoss (peat) samples. Activity in coir was similar to that in peat while activity in vermiculite and perlite was greater than that in peat. Activity in a fibrous peat sample was greater than in two less-fibrous peat samples. Results from Expt. 2 indicated that paclobutrazol activity was reduced more in the fine (<2 mm) fraction of fresh and composted bark samples than in medium (2-4 mm) or coarse (>4 mm) fractions. In Expt. 3, petunia {Petunia hybrida Vilm. `Madness Red') was grown in a mixture of either 60% composted pine bark: 0% peat or 0% composted bark: 60% peat. The paclobutrazol concentration required to achieve the same size control was 14 times higher in the former mixture than in the latter. Thus, media components differ greatly in their influence on paclobutrazol activity and the bioassay procedure may serve as a useful tool for predicting media-paclobutrazol interactions. Chemical name used: (±)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(l,l-dimethyl)-lH-l,2,4-triazole-l-ethanol (paclobutrazol).

Open access

Shigemi Honma

Abstract

‘Solohead’, as the name suggests, is a broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) that bears only the primary head with no lateral shoot development prior to head maturity. Lateral shoots may appear at a later date after the primary head has been harvested. This cultivar shows resistance to black rot [Xanthomonas campestris (Pam.) Dows.]. ‘Solohead’ was developed for commercial production where only the primary head is harvested, but is also useful for the home garden and as a germplasm source.

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Charles F. Forney

Rand (Randsland Farms) for his generous donation of broccoli. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate

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Zhi-Rong Li, Kang-Di Hu, Fen-Qin Zhang, Shi-Ping Li, Lan-Ying Hu, Yan-Hong Li, Song-Hua Wang, and Hua Zhang

Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica ) is an important vegetable of high nutritional value and a common component of the human diet. Floral heads of broccoli are harvested during the immature stage when florets are composed of male and female

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S.B. Sterrett, J.W. Mapp Jr., and C.W. Coale Jr.

1 Regional Market Development Manager. We gratefully acknowledge C.P. Savage, Jr., for his technical assistance and P. Ramsey for the development of the commercial production budget for broccoli. The cost of

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Lewis W. Jett, Gregory E. Welbaum, Charles R. O'Dell, and Ronald D. Morse

Seeds America Inc., Morgan Hill, CA for supplying broccoli seeds.