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R.L. Parish, R.P. Bracy, and H.F. Morris Jr.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of banding or broadcasting fertilizer on yield and quality of turnip (Brassica rapa L. Rapifera group), sweetcorn (Zea mays var. rugosa Bonaf.), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group). Preplant fertilizer was applied broadcast before bedding, broadcast after bedding, or banded after bedding. Sidedress applications were broadcast or banded on the beds. Differences in plant size and vigor were noticed early in the season in the spring turnip crop, with the growth in the broadcast-and-bed treatment appearing superior. The yield at first harvest and total yield were lower for turnip grown with the bed-and-broadcast treatment. No differences in yield of cabbage or sweetcorn resulted from the treatments. Few differences in turnip stem-to-leaf ratio were noted due to fertilizer treatment. Few differences in yield due to sidedress method were noted with any of the crops. Analysis of soil samples in a grid pattern across the beds showed that the location of the fertilizer after the broadcast-and-bed treatment was similar to the placement of the banded fertilizer. Since broadcasting can be done with a faster, wider applicator, growers could reduce costs by broadcasting fertilizer and obtain yields that are at least equivalent to the yields obtained by banding the fertilizer.

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Eric B. Brennan and Jim E. Leap

medium- (i.e., ≈100 ha) to large-scale (greater than 200 ha) farms, whereas smaller-scale organic farms with fewer resources often broadcast cover crop seed onto the soil surface and incorporate it into the soil in a separate pass with a secondary tillage

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Richard L. Parish, Regina P. Bracy, and Hershel F. Morris Jr.,

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of banding or broadcasting fertilizer on yield and quality of turnip (Brassica rapa L. Rapifera group), sweetcorn (Zea mays var. rugosa Bonaf), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group). Preplant fertilizer was applied broadcast prior to bedding, broadcast after bedding, or banded after bedding. Sidedress applications were broadcast or banded on the beds. Strong visual differences were noticed early in the season in the spring turnip crop with the growth in the broadcast-then-bed treatment appearing superior. The yield at first harvest and total yield were lower for turnip growth with the bed-and-broadcast treatments. No differences in yield of cabbage and sweetcorn resulted from the treatments. Few differences in turnip stem to leaf ratio were noted due to fertilizer treatment. Few differences in yield due to sidedress method were noted with any of the crops. Since broadcasting can be done with a faster, wider applicator, growers could reduce costs by broadcasting fertilizer and obtain yields that are at least equivalent to the yields from banding.

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R.E. Worley, J.W. Daniel, J.D. Dutcher, K.A. Harrison, and B.G. Mullinix

No reduction in yield and quality of pecan nuts or leaf mineral nutrient concentration occurred when 100 lb/acre of N was applied through a drip-irrigation system compared with 200 lb/acre applied either all broadcast or half broadcast and half fertigated. Yield of `Stuart', percentage kernel of `Schley', and nut size of both cultivars were increased by irrigation or irrigation and fertigation. The 100 lb/acre N-all-fertigated treatment resulted in less soil pH reduction and less loss of K, Ca, and Mg from soil underneath the tree canopy than broadcast treatments. No evidence of excessive soil pH reduction in the wetted zone of fertigated trees was noticed. Calcium and Mg were higher within than outside the wetted zone.

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J.M. Kemble and E.A. Guertal

In 1994 and 1995, a study was conducted in Crossville, Ala., to determine if differences in leaf P concentration and crop yield occurred when P was broadcast or band-applied. Phosphorus (0, 34, 67, 101, and 134 kg P/ha) was banded (2 × 2) or broadcast and incorporated before planting. Other nutrients were applied based on current recommendations and soil testing. In 1994, as level of P increased from 0 to 150 kg P/ha, fresh weight of harvested ears increased quadratically. In 1995, fresh weight of harvested ears did not differ among broadcast treatments; however, there was a linear increase in yield among banded P treatments. There was no difference in fresh weight of harvested ears between banding and broadcasting in either year. Percent P in corn ear leaves did not differ among treatments. There was no difference in P leaf concentrations between the banded and broadcast treatments, indicating that yield response occurred because of rate of P application as opposed to method.

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G.H. Neilsen, D. Neilsen, and F. Peryea

Traditionally, broadcast or foliar fertilizer applications have been used to improve or sustain the nutrition of many irrigated, deciduous fruit tree orchards in western North America. Recent developments, including adoption of low-pressure microirrigation systems and planting at higher densities [especially for apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)], have increased interest in controlled application of fertilizers directly with irrigation (fertigation). Recent fertigation research in western North America is reviewed, emphasizing results from high-density apple orchards. Fertigation and traditional broadcast application methods are examined with respect to mobility of N, P, and K in the soil and response of fruit trees to application of these nutrients.

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Dong Sub Kim, Steven Kim, and Steven A. Fennimore

Soil disinfestation with steam has potential to partially replace fumigants such as methyl bromide, chloropicrin, and 1,3-dichloropropene because it is effective, safer to apply, and has less negative impact on the environment. Here, we compared the efficacy of steam and steam + mustard seed meal (MSM) to chloropicrin on soil disinfection, plant growth, and fruit yield in a strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) fruiting field. The MSM was applied at 3368 kg·ha−1 before the steam application. Steam was injected into a 3-m-wide reverse tiller that was set to till 30 to 40 cm deep. Soil temperatures at depths of 10, 20, 25, and 35 cm were monitored. Steam and steam + MSM treatments reduced the viability of purslane seeds and nutsedge tubers, microsclerotia density of Verticillium dahliae, propagule density of Pythium ultimum, cumulative weed densities, and biomass compared with the nontreated control. Moreover, the steam application was as efficacious as chloropicrin on these pests. The growth and fruit yield of strawberries grown on soils previously treated with the steam and steam + MSM treatments were similar to those in the chloropicrin treatment and were higher than those in the nontreated control. Our study indicated that steam, steam + MSM, and chloropicrin are equally effective at suppressing weeds and soilborne pathogens. These results suggest that the steam and steam + MSM treatment can be a practical alternative for soil disinfestation in conventional and organic strawberry fields.

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M. Lenny Wells

and disease pests ( Weinbaum et al., 1992 ). Historically, N fertilizer has been uniformly broadcast on the soil surface in single or split applications of ≈84 to 168 kg·ha −1 N in southeastern pecan orchards. Fertigation has been used effectively in

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Renata L. Solan, Jed B. Colquhoun, Richard A. Rittmeyer, and Daniel J. Heider

hilling operation at ground-crack, or preemergence, immediately followed by broadcast application of a grass- and a broadleaf-specific herbicide. Herbicide use in the conventional program may be reduced by applying less herbicide to the area between potato

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Xinhua Yin, Jinhe Bai, and Clark F. Seavert

and quality in the region. Presently, N fertilizer is applied by uniform broadcast on the soil surface in a single application of ≈80 to 100 lb/acre N as ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, urea, etc. in April or May each year. The above practice has