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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, Wayne B. Sherman, and José X. Chaparro

Most temperate fruit tree breeding programs pay major attention to fruit quality, chilling requirement, crop load, and tolerance to disease. In contrast, limited effort has been devoted to tree architecture and tree branching patterns ( Berthelemy

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Coral Ortiz, Antonio Torregrosa, Enrique Ortí, and Sebastià Balasch

height was (mean ± sd ) 0.45 ± 0.05 m and the trunk diameter was 0.11 ± 0.01 m. The trees had three to five main branches. The canopy height of the aboveground level was 2.2 ± 0.2 m. The height from the ground to the canopy skirt was 0.9 ± 0.2 m. The

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John M. Dole and Harold F. Wilkins

Abbreviations: BD, `Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond'; CR, `Eckespoint C-1 Red'; TR, free-branching plants propagated from restricted-branching `Eckespoint C-1 Red' scions after being grafted onto free-branching `Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond' stocks

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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, José X. Chaparro, and Jeffrey Williamson

Although growth forms in peach such as dwarf, pillar, weeping, and compact have been studied ( Scorza et al., 2006 ), little effort has been devoted to the study of tree architecture and branching. The standard peach tree has vigorous acropetal

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Claudia Negrón, Loreto Contador, Bruce D. Lampinen, Samuel G. Metcalf, Theodore M. DeJong, Yann Guédon, and Evelyne Costes

Almond trees develop fruit laterally on extension shoots and short shoots called spurs on 2-year-old or older wood ( Kester et al., 1996 ). The pattern of shoots and spurs along branches is of major importance because they determine tree

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Mara Grossman, John Freeborn, Holly Scoggins, and Joyce Latimer

., 2006 ). PGRs can increase branching and improve plant architecture in plants by releasing apical dominance and allowing dormant lateral buds to expand, which results in fuller, well-branched plants ( Cline, 1991 ). However, using PGRs can be challenging

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Liping Zhang, Chen Shen, Jipeng Wei, and Wenyan Han

Shoot branching, being a major agronomic trait affecting crop yield, is a topic of concern in cultivation ( Chen et al., 2016 ; Muhr et al., 2016 ). The regulation of shoot branching is an important aspect for crop improvement in agricultural

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Mara Grossman, John Freeborn, Holly Scoggins, and Joyce Latimer

To meet the challenges of producing plants for sale, growers frequently use plant growth regulators (PGRs) to control plant height, branching, and flowering. BA is a PGR that increases branching in floriculture crops when sprayed on containerized

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Youping Sun, Guihong Bi, Genhua Niu, and Christina Perez

pruned or pinched on an annual basis to prevent them from being “leggy” and to promote lateral branching. Pruning or pinching is a common technique in hydrangea production to reduce plant size, stimulate lateral branching, improve overall appearance, and

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Lili Dong, Tongrui Liu, Di Gao, Jing Li, and Jie Qian

Petunia ( Petunia ×hybrida ) is one of the most important ornamental plants. In its cultivation, artificial topping is required to promote branch development to achieve the ornamental effects, but this task greatly increases the production cost