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Open access

C. R. Unrath and Assem D. Shaltout


Application of BA, GA4+7, and Promalin (GA4+7 + BA) to 2-and 3-yearold spur ‘Delicious’ apple trees [Malus domestica(Borkh.)] resulted in an increased number of laterals (> 15 cm) and feathers (5-15 cm). Concentrations of 250 and 500 ppm were most effective. Application at 5 cm of terminal growth was most effective while application after 10 cm was ineffective. Use of the surfactants, Buffer X or Tween 20 (0.3%) with BA application, increased the branching response. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-lH-purin-6-amine (BA), Gibberellins A4 + A7 (GA4+7).

Open access

Azlan Zahid, Md Sultan Mahmud, Long He, James Schupp, Daeun Choi, and Paul Heinemann

useful for apple trees ( He and Schupp, 2018 ; Zahid et al., 2021a ) because they can result in unwanted vegetative growth. Robotic pruning is a selective branch operation that can produce accurate cuts using an end-effector tool attached to the

Free access

Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, Wayne B. Sherman, and José X. Chaparro

Most temperate fruit tree breeding programs pay major attention to fruit quality, chilling requirement, crop load, and tolerance to disease. In contrast, limited effort has been devoted to tree architecture and tree branching patterns ( Berthelemy

Open access

Coral Ortiz, Antonio Torregrosa, Enrique Ortí, and Sebastià Balasch

height was (mean ± sd ) 0.45 ± 0.05 m and the trunk diameter was 0.11 ± 0.01 m. The trees had three to five main branches. The canopy height of the aboveground level was 2.2 ± 0.2 m. The height from the ground to the canopy skirt was 0.9 ± 0.2 m. The

Open access

Mason Marshall, Terri Starman, H. Brent Pemberton, and Calvin Trostle

Manual pinching of apical meristems of horticultural crops removes apical dominance and promotes branching, increases flower numbers, and promotes the growth of a rounded, uniform plant canopy. However, manual pinching is a time-consuming and

Free access

John M. Dole and Harold F. Wilkins

Abbreviations: BD, `Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond'; CR, `Eckespoint C-1 Red'; TR, free-branching plants propagated from restricted-branching `Eckespoint C-1 Red' scions after being grafted onto free-branching `Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond' stocks

Free access

Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, José X. Chaparro, and Jeffrey Williamson

Although growth forms in peach such as dwarf, pillar, weeping, and compact have been studied ( Scorza et al., 2006 ), little effort has been devoted to the study of tree architecture and branching. The standard peach tree has vigorous acropetal

Free access

Claudia Negrón, Loreto Contador, Bruce D. Lampinen, Samuel G. Metcalf, Theodore M. DeJong, Yann Guédon, and Evelyne Costes

Almond trees develop fruit laterally on extension shoots and short shoots called spurs on 2-year-old or older wood ( Kester et al., 1996 ). The pattern of shoots and spurs along branches is of major importance because they determine tree

Open access

Ryan M. Warner

, cultural information for producing greenhouse-grown stevia as a transplant or potted plant is lacking. As with many herbs grown for commercial sales in pots, it is desirable to produce a full, well-branched plant that is sold during the vegetative stage of

Free access

Mara Grossman, John Freeborn, Holly Scoggins, and Joyce Latimer

., 2006 ). PGRs can increase branching and improve plant architecture in plants by releasing apical dominance and allowing dormant lateral buds to expand, which results in fuller, well-branched plants ( Cline, 1991 ). However, using PGRs can be challenging