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Metin Turan, Nizamettin Ataoglu, Adem Gunes, Taskin Oztas, Atilla Dursun, Melek Ekinci, Quirine M. Ketterings and Yuh Ming Huang

( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia ) and crisp lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa ). Brussels sprout is not commonly grown, but there is an increasing interest in its production as a result of its high nutritional value. Boron plays an important

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M. Lenny Wells, Patrick J. Conner, J. Frank Funderburk and Jacob G. Price

Foliar boron (B) applications have been observed to promote flowering, fruit set, and yield in a variety of perennial tree crops ( Batjer and Thompson, 1949 ; Hanson et al., 1985 ; Nyomora et al., 1999 ; Stephenson and Gallagher, 1987

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Timothy K. Broschat

Boron deficiency is a common and widespread disorder of palms throughout the world ( Broschat, 2007a ; Corrado et al., 1992 ; Elliott et al., 2004 ; Kamalakshiamma and Shanavas, 2002 ). Boron deficiency can be extremely transient, affecting

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Menahem Edelstein, Meni Ben-Hur and Zui Plaut

Boron deficiency and boron toxicity are important micronutrient factors that affect the productivity of cultivated crops in many parts of the world. Although boron deficiency might occur in humid regions, boron toxicity can be a serious problem in

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Timothy K. Broschat

Boron (B) deficiency is an important problem in the production of many crops around the world ( Reisenauer et al., 1973 ; Sharrocks, 1997 ). Although B deficiency is known to be accentuated by soil drying and high soil pH ( Biggar and Fireman, 1960

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Uri Yermiyahu, Alon Ben-Gal and Pinchas Sarig

Table grape production has recently become popular in arid and semiarid regions where conditions of salinity and excess boron (B) can be prevalent. This study addresses B toxicity in grapevine to define toxicity symptoms and evaluate growth, production, and B accumulation. The effect of excess B on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sugraone) was evaluated in a 4-year study in Israel's Jordan Valley. Vines were grown in 60-L perlite-filled containers and irrigated with complete nutrient solutions with four B concentrations: 0.03, 0.12, 0.21, and 0.31 mm. Vines were monitored for growth, yield, and B accumulation. Boron accumulation in leaves correlated with B toxicity symptoms that materialized as chlorosis and necrosis of leaves beginning at their margins, reduced leaf size, and reduced internodal distance between adjacent leaves. Boron accumulated in grapevine leaves linearly as a function of increased B in irrigation solution with time and with age of leaves. The highest B levels were found at the end of each season and in the oldest leaves. No long-term (multiyear) effect of exposure to B was observed because similar accumulation patterns and levels were found in each year of the experiment. Hence, consistently sampled diagnostic leaves and time of sampling for B analysis is seen to be critical to provide valid comparisons between vines or over time. Boron supply influenced vine growth. At low levels of B (0.03 mm), canopy development was restricted but trunk size was not. At high levels of B (0.21 and 0.31 mm), substantial visual symptoms of B toxicity were observed, and the rate of trunk growth was reduced, but pruning biomass was not influenced. Despite severe visual toxicity damage and reduced overall growth rates, commercial fruit yield of the vines remained unaffected by high environmental B levels.

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Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, Jonathan Frantz and Ingram McCall

boron (B), could not be confirmed by tissue sampling. The occurrence and severity of the problem can vary by year, season, stage of plant development, geographical area, and cultivar, especially in pansy. Calcium and B deficiencies can occur as a result

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Sasmita Mishra, Scott Heckathorn, Jonathan Frantz, Futong Yu and John Gray

Boron (B) has long been recognized as an essential micronutrient for higher plants ( Warington, 1923 ), and B stress (deficiency or toxicity) in crops is common and economically important ( Shorrocks, 1997 ). Despite the importance of B in plant

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Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, Ingram McCall and Jonathan Frantz

Boron moves passively into plants from the roots to the shoots through the transpiration stream through the xylem ( Jones, 1991 ; Kochian, 1991 ; Kohl and Oertli, 1961 ; Raven, 1980 ). Relative humidity can be a major factor influencing the rate

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Sylvia Letícia Oliveira Silva, Renato de Mello Prado, Gilmara Pereira da Silva, Gabriel Barbosa da Silva Júnior, Monica Lanzoni Rossi and Leónides Castellanos González

, mainly micronutrients such as boron (B) ( Fernández and Brown, 2013 ), because of their low availability in the soil ( Rodríguez-Lucena et al., 2009 ). Boron deficiency in Fabaceae causes significant crop losses by restricting reproductive development