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Tomomi Eguchi, Ricardo Hernández, and Chieri Kubota

ratio inhibits intumescence development in tomato has not been discussed in the previous studies. Blue light is known to elicit physiological plant responses mediated through blue light photoreceptors, cryptochrome or phototropin. Blue light also affects

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Qinglu Ying, Chase Jones-Baumgardt, Youbin Zheng, and Gale Bozzo

that blue light (400–500 nm) and red light (600–700 nm) are readily absorbed by leaves and used for photosynthesis ( McCree, 1972 ). Red light supplemented with blue light increases photosynthetic capacity and biomass accumulation in plant seedlings

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Noriko Ohtake, Masaharu Ishikura, Hiroshi Suzuki, Wataru Yamori, and Eiji Goto

effects of red and blue light on plant development and growth have been extensively studied because these wavelengths are predominantly absorbed by photosynthetic pigments and efficiently drive photosynthesis ( Abidi et al., 2013 ; Massa et al., 2008

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Fang Geng, Renae Moran, Michael Day, William Halteman, and Donglin Zhang

). Compared with white light, blue light increases in vitro shoot number in Amelanchier ( Behrouz and Lineberger, 1981 ) and plum ( Baraldi et al., 1988 ), but decreases shoot number and shoot length in Spiraea and apple ( Norton et al., 1988a , 1988b

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Kevin R. Cope and Bruce Bugbee

maximum absorption of chlorophyll (660 nm). However, it quickly became apparent that some blue light was necessary for normal growth and development of sorghum ( Britz and Sager, 1990 ), soybean ( Britz and Sager, 1990 ; Dougher and Bugbee, 2001a

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Jing Huang, Ya-liang Xu, Fa-min Duan, Xu Du, Qi-chang Yang, and Yin-jian Zheng

some degree of undesirable growth characteristics (lower biomass, lower net photosynthetic rate, or downward leaf curling) under red light alone, but these symptoms are ameliorated when blue light is added ( Kong et al., 2018 ; Miao et al., 2019 ). It

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Masahumi Johkan, Kazuhiro Shoji, Fumiyuki Goto, Shin-nosuke Hashida, and Toshihiro Yoshihara

morphology pattern ( McNellis and Deng, 1995 ). For example, blue light suppresses hypocotyl elongation and induces cotyledon expansion, and red light induces hypocotyl elongation and cotyledon expansion in Arabidopsis seedlings. Blue light is involved in a

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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

arrays (Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, WI) providing monochromatic red [100:0 red (660 nm):blue], monochromatic blue [0:100 red:blue (460 nm)], or a combination of red and blue (50:50 red:blue) light ( Table 1 ). Spectral scans of the control

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Lie Li, Yu-xin Tong, Jun-ling Lu, Yang-mei Li, and Qi-chang Yang

( Lactuca sativa L.) under short-term continuous light from red and blue light-emitting diodes Environ. Expt. Bot. 153 63 71 Borkowski, J. Dyki, B. Oskiera, M. Machlańska, A. Felczyńska, A. 2016 The prevention of tipburn on Chinese cabbage with foliar

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Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

respond to blue light stimuli ( Baum et al., 1999 ; Briggs and Christie, 2002 ; Fuchs et al., 2003 ). Blue light exposure during plant growth is qualitatively required for normal photosynthesis and facilitates quantitative leaf responses similar to those