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Sheng Chen, Zhenchang Wang, Zhanyu Zhang, Xiangping Guo, Mengyang Wu, Ghulam Rasool, Rangjian Qiu and Xiaojun Wang

20.91%, respectively, and those percentages were significantly lower as compared with T 3:3 . Fig. 1. ( A ) Number of blossom-end rot (BER) fruit per plant, ( B ) number of non-BER fruit per plant, ( C ) incidence of BER, ( D ) BER fruit fresh yield

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Timothy Coolong, Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva and Justin Shealey

) temperatures and relative humidity at the trial location for bell pepper grown in Tifton, GA, in 2016 and 2017. Table 2. Interactions for marketable yields of total, jumbo, extra-large, large, and medium fruit as well as culls due to blossom end rot (BER) and

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T. Casey Barickman, Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

treatment. Table 4. Incidence and yield of fruit with blossom-end rot in ‘Mt. Fresh Plus’ tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) grown in a greenhouse and treated with different concentrations of Ca in the hydroponic fertilizer solution. Incidence of BER in fruit

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George H. Clough and Shara E. Alexander

A 2-year study was conducted in eastern Oregon to evaluate the effects of hooped spunbonded polypropylene rowcovers and calcium fertilization on yield and quality of drip-irrigated bell pepper grown on black plastic mulch. The experiment was a complete factorial with four replications of two varieties, covered and uncovered plots, and three levels of supplemental calcium fertilization at 0, 34 and 68 kg·ha–1 applied through the drip irrigation system as Ca(NO3)2. Marketable yields increased with rowcover, both at the first harvest and over the season. Blossom-end rot and sunscald were reduced substantially by rowcovers; the effect was greatest during the earlier harvests. First harvest and season total yield of fancy grade peppers increased linearly as rate of supplemental calcium increased, as did total marketable yield at the first harvest. There was a trend to decreasing yield of fruit with blossom-end rot as calcium rate increased, and the percent fruit with blossom-end rot at the first harvest decreased linearly with increasing rate of calcium fertilization. Yield of fruit affected by sunscald decreased linearly as supplemental calcium rate increased at the first harvest; overall, yield of sunscald fruit was reduced by application of calcium at either rate.

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Wade H. Elmer and Francis J. Ferrandino

Paper mulch and black plastic mulch were compared with no mulch on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Better Boy' and `San Marzano') for incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in the field during 1988–90. Early season (late July to late August) harvest had more BER than in later pickings. Black plastic mulch significantly increased early season BER in `Better Boy' relative to paper or no mulch. Late-season BER in `San Marzano' was decreased with paper or black plastic mulch relative to no mulch.

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M.S. Albahou and J.L. Green

Incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) of tomato is known to increase with increasing salinity in hydroponics and field tomato crops due to osmotic stress and imbalanced ionic ratio in the media solution. The present investigation evaluated salinity effects on the occurrence of BER of tomato in a completely closed root environment known as the closed insulated pallet system (CIPS). The CIPS is a continuous sub-irrigation capillary system with water moving from reservoir to rootzone in response to plant uptake and loss through transpiration and growth. In CIPS, fertilizer reserve is placed at the top surface of the root matrix, so fertilizer ions move downward by diffusion. Various tomato genotypes were seeded directly into CIPS in Spring. The experiment was terminated at a 100-day growing period. The incidence of BER was calculated as percent affected fruits. Salinity treatments consisted of five concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 g/L NaCl. One salinity treatment was 1 g/L CaCl2. In CIPS, the salt gradient created by uptake of saline water had lowest concentration at the top of root compartment where fertilizer was placed. Therefore, there was minimal ionic interactions between fertilizer ions and ions from the saline water. The uptake of water and plant growth decreased with increasing salinity concentration. The addition of Ca in the sub-irrigation water had no effect on the occurrence of BER. The incidence of BER correlated negatively with salinity level and plant growth in the CIPS.

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Muhammad S. Hadi, William S. Conway and Carl E. Sams

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Ca nutrition on yield and incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato. Three levels of Ca (low = 20 ppm, medium = 200 ppm, and high = 1,000 ppm; selected to represent very deficient, normal, and very high levels of calcium) were applied to three cultivars of tomatoes (`Mountain Supreme', `Celebrity', and `Sunrise'; selected to represent genetic differences in susceptibility to BER) grown in modified Hoagland solutions using a greenhouse hydroponic system. The experiment was constructed in a randomized complete-block design with three blocks, two replications, three cultivars, and three calcium treatments. The source of basic nutrients was a 5–11–26 soluble fertilizer containing micronutrients. The ratio of N–P–K was adjusted to 1.0–1.3–3.0 by adding NH4NO3 (34% N). Calcium was added as CaCl2. Nitrogen concentrations were maintained at 30 (first month), 60 (second month), and 90 ppm (during fruit growth), while the concentration of other nutrients followed proportionally. Cultivars differed significantly in yield and average fruit weight but not in incidence of BER or leaf Ca concentration. There was no cultiva × calcium treatment interaction. Leaf Ca content across cultivars was increased by 34% and 44%, respectively, by the medium and high Ca treatments. Average fruit weight and total yield per plant were not significantly different between the low and medium Ca treatments, however, both were reduced by the high Ca treatment. Incidence of BER was 95% higher in the low rather than in the medium Ca treatment. There was no significant difference in BER between the medium and high Ca treatments.

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M.D. Taylor, S.J. Locascio and M.R. Alligood

`Equinox' tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown during the springs of 2001 and 2002 with black polyethylene-mulch and drip irrigation on an Arredondo fine sand in Gainesville, Fla., to study the influence of water quantity, Ca source, and reduced K on incidence of blossom-end rot (BER), marketable fruit yield, and fruit and leaf Ca concentration. Tensiometers were used to schedule irrigation in main plots when the soil matric potential reached 10 or 25 kPa. Subplot nutritional treatments were no added Ca, Ca(NO3)2, Ca thiosulfate, CaCl2, CaSO4, and K rate reduced by 50%. Interactions between year and treatment were significant. During 2001, total marketable yields were higher with Ca(NO3)2 or CaCl2 compared to plants that received Ca thiosulfate and were higher from plants irrigated at 10 kPa than irrigated at 25 kPa. Number and weight of BER fruit were lower with Ca(NO3)2 and reduced K than with no added Ca and CaSO4. Leaf and fruit Ca concentrations were generally higher with Ca(NO3)2 compared to all other nutritional treatments. Leaf and fruit Ca concentrations were generally higher from plants irrigated at 10 kPa than at 25 kPa. The reduction of NH4 +-N, by the supply of N as NO3 -, and the addition of supplemental Ca reduced the incidence of BER, and increased the leaf and fruit Ca concentrations. During 2002, marketable yields were higher with CaSO4 than with CaCl2 and reduced K. Weight and number of BER fruit were lower with irrigation at 10 kPa than at 25 kPa. Leaf and fruit Ca concentrations were higher or similar from plants that received Ca(NO3)2 than with all other nutritional treatments. During the 2002 season, rainfall was less and temperatures and daily evapotranspiration (ET) were higher than in the 2001 season. In the 2002 season, 3.28 × 106 L·ha-1 of irrigation was applied as compared to 1.58 × 106 L·ha-1 in 2001. With an average Ca concentration of 76 mg·L-1 in the irrigation water, much more Ca was applied during the higher ET 2002 season. With the higher transpiration and temperature, water uptake and hence, Ca uptake were increased. During both seasons, the lowest Ca concentration was observed at the blossom end of the fruit and the highest Ca at the stem end of the fruit. Fruit Ca concentrations were lower and BER was 5 times higher in the lower ET, higher rainfall (lower irrigation) 2001 season compared to the higher ET, lower rainfall (higher irrigation) 2002 season. These data support that BER was a symptom of Ca deficiency and this deficiency was aggravated by high rainfall, low ET, and the resulting reduced irrigation applied and reduced Ca uptake.

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Wade J. Sperry, Jeanine M. Davis and Douglas C. Sanders

Two crack-resistant and two crack-susceptible fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars were evaluated at varied soil moisture levels for physiological fruit defects and yield. Cultural practices recommended for staked-tomato production in North Carolina with raised beds, black polyethylene mulch, and drip irrigation were used. Soil moisture levels of less than −15.0, −30 to −40, and greater than −70 kPa were maintained and monitored using daily tensiometer readings. Soil moisture level had no effect on fruit cracking, blossom-end rot, zippers, or yield. However, there-were large differences among cultivars for fruit defects and total and marketable yields.

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J.A. Franco, P.J. Pérez-Saura and A. Durán

The appearance of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato is related to a decrease in the absorption and translocation of Ca due to excessive salinity in the soil solution. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of calcium nitrate (NT), EDTA-Ca (ED) and Aminoquelant-Ca (AQ)—a product containing Ca, B and protein hydrolisate—on the yield and incidence of BER when applied to the leaves of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Durinta') grown in the open with a drip irrigation using saline water from a well (mean ECw 5.2 dS·m–1). The three calcium treatments and control were replicated four times, with 12 plants per replication, in a completely randomized design. Although yield per plant was higher with AQ, the difference was not statistically significant. Fewer fruit were affected by BER after treatment with ED and AQ than with NT and in the control. Leaf Ca concentration did not differ significantly between treatments. However, leaf B concentration was higher after treatment with AQ. Fruit Ca and B concentrations did not differ significantly in any treatment. The total free amino acids content in leaves was higher after AQ treatment than in the other treatments and control, although no significant difference was observed between the treatments in the fruit.