at the end of the journey from farm to fork is the consumer, and how the consumer handling of tomatoes at home affects tomato flavor has not been well studied. Refrigeration of tomatoes is a common consumer practice in home kitchens and blanching of
Libin Wang, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Zhifang Yu, and Jinhe Bai
Laurie Hodges, Roger Uhlinger, Ernesto Brovelli, Susan Cuppett, and Anne Parkhurst
Fourteen asparagus cultivars were established in 1988 in eastern Nebraska on a heavy silty clay soil to determine suitability for Nebraska production. Total & marketable yields differed among cultivars with highest total & marketable yields obtained with “UC157-F1”, “Jersey General”, “Jersey Knight”, 44P×22-8, 51×22-8 & Md10×22-8. Production of the cultivars “Jersey Gem”, “Jersey Giant”, & “Jersey General” was additionally compared as green & blanched (white) production under white-on-black plastic blanching frames. Lowest ratio of culls to marketable spears & highest marketable weight was obtained with “Jersey General” for both blanched & green spears. Although total weight was greater for green asparagus, use of blanching frames reduced the number of culls for each cultivar and increased the weight of marketable spears to exceed that of green asparagus.
Durward Smith and Joseph D. Norton
Chinese chestnuts (Castanea molissima Blume) are very susceptible to spoilage, and require artificial storage means to maintain fresh nuts. Frozen shelled nuts would offer the consumer a convenient product with no waste or spoilage, however chestnuts have traditionally been cured and held in storage to develop a desirable texture and conversion of starch to sugars. This research was initiated to determine the effect of thermal blanch treatment (water vs. syrups) on the texture, color and acceptability cured and uncured frozen, shelled Chinese chestnuts. After frozen storage nuts blanched in syrup had better color and firmer textures than water-blanched nuts. Uncured nuts were firmer than cured nuts, and were ranked above cured nuts by sensory panelists.
Anna Perkins Nina Bassuk
Budbreak inhibition and poor overwinter survival (OS) limit successful cutting propagation of Acer rubrum October Glory, A. rubrum Red Sunset, Hamamelis vernalis, H. virginiana and Stewartia pseudocamellia. Localized blanching (banding) of the cutting on the stock plant; a range of 3 IBA concentrations, and foliar spray application of: 1% silver thiosulfate(STS), STS followed ten days later by Gibberellin, GA4/7:250ppm(STS GA),50ppm thidiazuron (TDZ) and TDZ followed by GA4/7 (TDZ GA)were tested for increasing growth and overwinter survival.. Carbohydrates were analyzed in cuttings which did and didn't grow. A. rubrum October Glory*, and Hamamelis spp all had increased OS for cuttings which grew. A. rubrum Red Sunset demonstrated a similar trend. Hamamelis spp. had significant increase in carbohydrates for cuttings which grew. A. rubrum October Glory' exhibited the same trend. S. pseudocamellia did not have increased OS with growth. and showed no increases in carbohydrates with growth, but the cuttings that didn't grow had at least 93 % more carbohydrates than the other species analyzed. All species had higher OS when stored in the 3° C cooler, than in the fluctuating cold frame. Banding increased growth of A. rubrum October Glory, and H. virginiana. IBA concentration affected growth of all species. STS increased growth of H. virginiana and S. pseudocamellia. GA4/7 increased growth of all cuttings except A. rubrum October Glory.
C. Tsipouridis and T. Thomidis
The effect of cutting length, planting depth, irrigation of cuttings, soil compaction following frost, and prior blanching on rooting of `GF677' hardwood stem cuttings stuck directly into a nursery row was studied. The results showed that cuttings cut to 30 cm lengths rooted best of all length treatments tested. Cuttings planted so that the shoot tips were level with the soil surface (0-cm-deep treatment) rooted with significantly higher percentages than did the other planting depths. Irrigation, applied immediately after planting cuttings into a nursery row, had a negative effect on rooting. Cuttings that were loosened from the soil as a result of frost heaving rooted better when pushed back into the soil than did the controls. Finally, cuttings made from shoots that were treated by wrapping the base in red or black tape rooted better than the unwrapped controls.
Brian K. Maynard and Nina L. Bassuk
In a study of stock plant etiolation and stem banding, stem cuttings of upright European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. `Fastigiata') were taken at 2-week intervals over 4 months following budbreak and rooted under intermittent mist for 30 days. Percent rooting and root counts declined with increasing cutting age. Stock plant etiolation and stem banding increased percent rooting and root counts throughout the study, with the combination of both treatments yielding the best rooting. In nontreated stems, > 75% rooting was achieved only within 4 weeks of budbreak. Etiolation and stem banding resulted in rooting ≥ 75% up to 3 months after budbreak. In two shading studies, stock plants were grown in a glass greenhouse under 0%, 50%, 75%, or 95% shade, or initially etiolated (100% shade) for 1.5 days. Cuttings were taken after 2.5 and 60 days and treated with IBA concentrations ranging from 0 to 4.9 mm before rooting under intermittent mist for 30 days. Percent rooting increased proportionally to the degree of shading, with a maximum response at 95% shade. Cuttings taken at 60 days were less responsive to etiolation and shading than those harvested at 25 days. Auxin concentration interacted with shading to yield, at 95% shade and 3.7 mm IBA, the highest rooting percentage and the greatest root counts and lengths. Light exclusion by etiolation, stem banding, or shading can extend the cutting propagation season by increasing rooting responses and increasing the sensitivity of stem cuttings to exogenously applied auxin. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
Wen-Quan Sun and Nina L. Bassuk
Softwood shoots of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) rootstocks M.9 and MM.106 were banded with Velcro for up to 20 days before cuttings were propagated. Percent rooting and the number of roots per cutting were significantly improved by banding for 10 to 20 days, with and without IBA application. As the duration of stem banding increased from 0 to 20 days, percent rooting and the number of roots of both M.9 and MM.106 cuttings increased linearly or curvilinearly. Stem banding also stimulated budbreak of cuttings. In M.9, banding resulted in a higher survival rate and increased new shoot growth of transplanted cuttings after 4 months. Percent budbreak and new shoot growth were highly correlated with the number of roots per cutting in both cultivars. The effects of stem banding on budbreak and subsequent growth of the cuttings were largely due to the enhanced rooting of cuttings. Chemical names used: 1H-indole3-butyric acid (IBA).
J.I. Maté, M.E. Saltveit, and J.M. Krochta
Rancidity is a major problem during the storage of shelled peanuts and walnuts. Blanched peanuts, blanched dry roasted peanuts, blanched oil roasted peanuts (all of them extra large Virginia variety) and shelled Persian walnut (Chandler variety) were maintained in closed jars at 37 C. Relative humidity was controlled by saturated salt solutions at 20% and 55%. Oxygen concentration was 21% or reduced to 0.1% by flushing with nitrogen.
Samples were taken every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. Peroxide values were measured and volatiles were analyzed to determine the rancidity of the samples. Oxygen concentrations in the jars and nut moisture were also measured.
Dry roasted peanuts were the most susceptible to rancidity. Blanched peanuts, without any roasting process, were the most stable. The results quantified the importance of oxygen as a major factor in rancidity at the relative humidities studied. It was concluded that it is possible to quantitatively control the rancidity process by decreasing the oxygen concentration surrounding the nuts.
J.K. Collins, P. Perkins-Veazie, E.V. Wann, and N. Maness
Supersweet corn with the shrunken-2 gene (sh2) has shown good quality after frozen storage. A study was undertaken to further evaluate the quality of supersweet corn (cv Florida Staysweet) unblanched or blanched then frozen. Samples were evaluated every 4 months for 12 months for peroxidase activity. sugar composition, water soluble polysaccharides and organoleptic qualities. Peroxidese activity changed in unblanched corn at each sampling date, which was consistently higher than in blanched corn. Sucrose and total sugars declined during storage. Sucrose was highest in blenched samples and reducing sugars were highest in unblanched samples. WSP content was low in all samples, but lower in blenched compared to unblanched samples. Taste panelists discerned differences between blanched and unblanched corn at 8 months when blanched samples were rated as more yellow than unblanched. However, no differences were found for taste between blanched and unblanched samples for taste at 12 months. These results indicate that sh2 sweetcorn maintained good eating quality for 12 months of frozen storage with or without blanching.
John M. Capik, Megan Muehlbauer, Ari Novy, Josh A. Honig, and Thomas J. Molnar
study] in addition to the EFB-resistant cultivars Gasaway and Delta and susceptible ‘Barcelona’ for comparison. Based on the nut evaluations, we identified several trees that produce nuts of improved quality, including round kernels that blanch well and