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Clydette M. Alsup and Pamela B. Trewatha

In two experiments, seedlings of black-eyed susan were transplanted into 15-cm pots and after 1 week received one of the following treatments: media drench application of 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 mg·L-1 of paclobutrazol or pinching back of terminal growth once, twice, or three times. After plants reached salable size, plant height, lateral branch length and number, and flower counts were taken, and plants were harvested for dry weights. In the first experiment, all pinching treatments and 10 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol reduced plant height and increased lateral branching. Flower count at harvest was enhanced by paclobutrazol and reduced by pinching, due to delayed development of inflorescences. Lateral branching and flower bud count were greatest in the second study on plants receiving three pinches. The 100 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol-drenched plants had lowest height, dry weight, and bud count and were severely stunted. The most attractive plants appeared to be those that received the 10 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol drench treatments.

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Heather Kalaman, Gary W. Knox, Sandra B. Wilson, and Wendy Wilber

advertised pollinator plant, spotted beebalm ( Monarda punctata ), 587 of 838 respondents (70.1%) were able to correctly identify an image of this floral resource. Similarly, when shown a photo of a black-eyed susan ( Rudbeckia hirta ), 744 of 841 respondents

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Gina M. Angelella and Megan E. O’Rourke

( Chamaecrista fasciculata ), and showy tickseed ( Bidens aristosa ); the biennual was black-eyed Susan ( Rudbeckia hirta ); perennials included narrowleaf mountain mint ( Pycnanthemum tenuifolium ), lanceleaf coreopsis ( Coreopsis lanceolata ), wild bergamot

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Jeffrey G. Norcini, James H. Aldrich, Mack Thetford, Kimberly A. Klock-Moore, Michelle L. Bell, and Brent K. Harbaugh

Growth, flowering, and survival of black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta L.) from three seed sources—northern Florida (NFL), central Florida (CFL), and Texas (TEX)—were evaluated under low input conditions for one growing season at four sites in Florida. Two sites were in American Horticultural Society (AHS) Heat Zone 9 while the other two were in AHS Heat Zones 10 and 11. Growth, onset date of flowering, and number of flowers at peak flowering varied by site. With few exceptions, plants tended to reach peak flowering at about the same time. Flower diameter varied by seed source with TEX>NFL>CFL. While TEX plants were perceived as the showiest, NFL and CFL plants persisted longer under the low input conditions in Florida, and hence provided some evidence of adaptation to regional site conditions.

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Jeffrey F. Derr

Tolerance of transplanted black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima Farw.), lanceleaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata L.), shasta daisy (Chrysanthemum × superbum Bergmans ex. J. Ingram), purple coneflower [Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.], and blanket flower (Gaillardia aristata Pursh) to preemergence herbicides was evaluated in container trials. Herbicides were applied at the maximum use rate and twice the maximum use rate. Dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine provided excellent control of spotted. spurge (Euphorbia maculata L.) and yellow woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta L.) with little injury to the five herbaceous perennials. DCPA, oxadiazon, and metolachlor were tolerated by all treated species, but these chemicals provided lower control of one or both weed species. Oryzalin, isoxaben + trifluralin, and napropamide caused unacceptable injury and shoot fresh-weight reductions in some of the perennials at one or both application rates. Chemical names used: dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (DCPA); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl) -4-(2 -methylpropyl)-6-trifluoromethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate(dithiopyr);N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide(isoxaben); 2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide(metolachlor);N,N-diethyl-2-(l-naphtha1enenyloxy) propanamide(napropamide);4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin);3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethy1)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-(1-ethylpropyl) -3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzamine (pendimethalin); N,N-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzamine (trifluralin).

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Jillene R. Summers, Gail R. Nonnecke, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Richard C. Schultz, and Thomas M. Isenhart

Improving soil quality and suppressing weeds are two challenges facing strawberry growers. Cover crops, such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense), have been used in rotation with strawberry in the Midwest. The objective of the field study was to investigate the effects of various cover crops on soil quality and weed populations for strawberry production. The experiment was established in 1996 at the Iowa State Univ. Horticulture Station, Ames, in plots that previously were planted continuously in strawberry for 10 years. Nine treatments were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Treatments included cover crops of Indian grass (Sorghastrum avenaceum), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), marigold (Tagetes erecta `Crackerjack'), sorghum-sudangrass, perennial ryegrass, strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa `Honeoye'), and bare soil (control). Data from 1998 showed that both annual and perennial cover crops were established more readily (higher treatment-plant populations and less weed populations) than in 1997. Water infiltration rates were highest in bare soil plots and lowest in P. virgatum plots. Bare soil plots and S. sudanense plots had the lowest percent soil moisture.

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James J. Marois and Jeffrey G. Norcini

Survival of black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta) from three regional seed sources was evaluated after inoculation with the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the greenhouse, and after they were planted in fumigated or nonfumigated and irrigated or nonirrigated field plots. The three seed sources were northern Florida (NFL), central Florida (CFL), or Texas (TEX). Plants from the three seed sources were inoculated individually under greenhouse conditions with four isolates of F. oxysporum originally isolated from the roots of diseased black-eyed susan grown in ecotype trials near Monticello, Fla. About 20% of the inoculated plants developed symptoms similar to those observed in the field, but no consistent ecotype or isolate effects were observed. In the field trial, planting beds were fumigated with methyl-bromide and chloropicrin and irrigated with drip irrigation (high input), not fumigated and irrigated, fumigated and not irrigated, or not fumigated and not irrigated (low input). During the first month of the trial, treatment and seed source had a significant effect on survival due to the low initial survival of NFL in the nonfumigated-nonirrigated plots. After the first month, only seed source had asignificant effect on survival, with TEX decreasing rapidly and the NFL population decreasing to a lesser degree. The decline of TEX could not be directly attributed to pests or climatic effects.

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Anthony M. Ortiz, Brent S. Sipes, Susan C. Miyasaka, and Alton S. Arakaki

To determine the potential to suppress root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, 10 genotypes of seven green manure species were evaluated in a greenhouse study. These species were: black hollyhock (Alcea rosea L.); canola (Brassica napus L.); cabbage (B. oleracea L.); French marigold (Tagetes patula L.), sorghum–sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench nothosubsp. drummondii (Steud.) de Wet ex Davidse]; sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.); and yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Plants were inoculated with eggs of M. javanica and after 6 weeks, nematode eggs and reproduction factor (Rf = final egg population density/initial egg population density) were determined. Marigolds were non-hosts to M. javanica; other crop species that were poor hosts to M. javanica included canola cv. Dwarf Essex, sorghum–sudangrass cvs. Piper and Sordan 79, black hollyhock cv. Nigra, and sunn hemp. Based on low Rf, four groups of species were selected for further evaluation in the greenhouse to determine the response to both M. javanica and another crop pathogen, Pythium aphanidermatum. These four groups of green manure crops were: 1) seven marigold genotypes; 2) four Brassicaceae genotypes; 3) seven sorghum–sudangrass hybrids; and 4) four other species [black hollyhock, sunn hemp, elecampane (Inula helenium L.), and black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta L.)]. Plants were inoculated with a factorial combination of M. javanica and P. aphanidermatum (none, each alone, and in combination) and repeated four times in a split-plot experimental design (whole plots were factorial treatments and subplots were green manure crop genotypes). Six weeks after inoculation, plants were harvested and measured for fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots and Rf of M. javanica. Adverse effects of P. aphanidermatum were characterized by dead or dying roots and measured by reduced plant biomass. Negative synergistic effects were observed in several marigold and Brassicaceae genotypes, in which the combined effects of M. javanica and P. aphanidermatum reduced shoot and root growth more severely than either treatment alone. Marigold T. erecta cv. Orangeade, sorghum–sudangrass cvs. Graze-All, Piper, and Sordan 79, and sunn hemp appeared to be resistant to M. javanica and P. aphanidermatum, either alone or in combination. Based on results of greenhouse trials, eight green manure crops (yellow mustard cv. Ida Gold, French marigolds cvs. Nema-gone and Golden Guardian, sorghum–sudangrass cvs. Sordan 79 and Tastemaker, sunn hemp, unplanted plot, and a control plot with weed mat) were selected and grown for 3 months in a field trial in Pepeekeo, HI. Each treatment was replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. Shoot biomass was sampled at 1, 2, and 3 months after planting. Plant–parasitic nematodes were counted before planting and at 4 months after planting. Dry weight biomass averaged across three sampling dates was greatest for the two sorghum–sudangrass hybrids followed by those of two marigold cultivars that did not differ from them. No significant differences in populations of root-knot nematodes were found. Based on this field trial as well as greenhouse trials, marigold cultivars, sorghum–sudangrass hybrids, and sunn hemp appeared to be non-hosts or poor hosts to reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) as well as root-knot nematodes and well adapted to the environmental conditions found along the Hamakua Coast of the Hawaii Island.

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D. Bradley Rowe, Michael A. Monterusso, and Clayton L. Rugh

Green roof technology in the United States is in the early development stage and several issues must be addressed before green roofs become more wide-spread in the U.S. Among these issues is the need to define growing substrates that are lightweight, permanent, and can sustain plant health without leaching nutrients that may harm the environment. High levels of substrate organic matter are not recommended because the organic matter will decompose, resulting in substrate shrinkage, and can leach nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the runoff. The same runoff problems can occur when fertilizer is applied. Also, in the midwestern U.S., there is a great deal of interest in utilizing native species and recreating natural prairies on rooftops. Since most of these native species are not succulents, it is not known if they can survive on shallow, extensive green roofs without irrigation. Five planting substrate compositions containing 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of heat-expanded slate (PermaTill) were used to evaluate the establishment, growth, and survival of two stonecrops (Sedum spp.) and six nonsucculent natives to the midwestern U.S. prairie over a period of 3 years. A second study evaluated these same plant types that were supplied with four levels of controlled-release fertilizer. Both studies were conducted at ground level in interlocking modular units (36 × 36 inches) designed for green roof applications containing 10 cm of substrate. Higher levels of heat-expanded slate in the substrate generally resulted in slightly less growth and lower visual ratings across all species. By May 2004, all plants of smooth aster (Aster laevis), horsemint (Monarda punctata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), and showy goldenrod (Solidago speciosa) were dead. To a lesser degree, half of the lanceleaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata) survived in 60% and 70% heat-expanded slate, but only a third of the plants survived in 80%, 90%, or 100%. Regardless of substrate composition, both `Diffusum' stonecrop (S. middendorffianum) and `Royal Pink' stonecrop (S. spurium) achieved 100% coverage by June 2002 and maintained this coverage into 2004. In the fertility study, plants that received low fertilizer rates generally produced the least amount of growth. However, water availability was a key factor. A greater number of smooth aster, junegrass (Koeleria macrantha), and showy goldenrod plants survived when they were not fertilized. Presumably, these plants could survive drought conditions for a longer period of time since they had less biomass to maintain. However, by the end of three growing seasons, all three nonsucculent natives also were dead. Overall results suggest that a moderately high level of heat-expanded slate (about 80%) and a relatively low level of controlled-release fertilizer (50 g·m-2 per year) can be utilized for green roof applications when growing succulents such as stonecrop. However, the nonsucculents used in this study require deeper substrates, additional organic matter, or supplemental irrigation. By reducing the amount of organic matter in the substrate and by applying the minimal amount of fertilizer to maintain plant health, potential contaminated discharge of N, P, and other nutrients from green roofs is likely to be reduced considerably while still maintaining plant health.

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Anne Marie Johnson and Ted Whitwell

Twenty-nine annual and perennial wildflower species were evaluated for sod development based on ratings for appearance, root mat density, and stability following undercutting and storage and performance after replanting. Species selection was based on the lack of a large taproot, adaptability to the southeastern climate, flowering period, and potential for surviving root undercutting. Species were seeded in fall and spring, and leaf area and root mass samples were compared. Wildflower sod was undercut at a 5 cm (2 in) depth in March (fall-seeded plots) and May (spring-seeded plots) and then stored on clear plastic for 7 weeks and replanted. Fall-planted species had a higher survival rate than spring-planted species. Species selected for sod development were Achillea millefolium L., Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Coreopsis lanceolata L., Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt., Gaillardia aristata Foug., Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag., Rudbeckia hirta L., and Verbena tenuisecta Briq. To reduce damage to aerial growth during harvesting, paclobutrazol, daminozide, and uniconazole were tested on eight greenhouse-grown wildflower species. Uniconazole had limited growth control over Rudbeckia hirta, Monarda citriodora, Coreopsis lanceolata, and Coreopsis tinctoria.