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Monica Ozores-Hampton and Deron R. A. Peach

Land application and landfilling are the most common destination for biosolids in the United States. When properly treated and managed in accordance with the existing state and federal regulations and standards, biosolids are safe for the environment and human health. Application of biosolids in vegetable production as an organic amendment to soils can increase plant growth and produce comparable crop yields with less inorganic nutrients than a standard program of commercial synthetic fertilizers. No application rate of treated biosolids alone will produce crop yields equivalent to commercial fertilizers. Biosolids may be used in conjunction with fertilizer thus lessening the application rate required. The major obstacles to public acceptance are issues concerning water pollution, risk of human disease, and odors. Additionally, heavy metals are an issue of bias with public perception. To ensure safe use of biosolids to a vegetable production systems the agronomic rate (nutrient requirement of the vegetable crop grown) should be calculated before application for the specific crop.

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Xunzhong Zhang, Damai Zhou, Erik H. Ervin, Greg K. Evanylo, Derik Cataldi, and Jinling Li

Biosolids are valued as sources of plant nutrients, soil organic matter, and, in the case of alkaline-stabilized materials, liming agents ( U.S. EPA, 2007 ; Zhang et al., 2009 ). The addition of organic materials enhances the biological, physical

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Kimberly A. Klock-Moore

Growth of `Oasis Scarlet' begonia (Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum Hort.) and `Super Elfin Violet' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook. f.) was compared in substrates containing compost made from used greenhouse substrates and yard trimmings (GHC) and in compost made from biosolids and yard trimmings (SYT). Treatments consisted of 100% compost (GHC or SYT) or compost combined with control substrate components at 60%, 30%, or 0%. Substrates containing SYT compost produced significantly larger begonia and impatiens plants than substrates containing GHC compost. Higher initial substrate nutrient concentrations in substrates containing SYT probably prompted increased begonia and impatiens growth because substrates containing SYT compost had significantly higher initial soluble salt, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations than substrates containing GHC compost. Begonia and impatiens shoot dry mass and size linearly increased as the percentage of SYT compost in the substrate increased from 0% to 100%. However, no difference in begonia or impatiens growth was observed among the different percentages of GHC compost. Initial soluble salt, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations also linearly increased as the percentage of SYT increased while only initial P, K, and Ca concentrations linearly increased as the percentage of GHC increased.

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Zhihui Chang, Laiqiang Zhuo, Fangfang Yu, and Xunzhong Zhang

Biosolids are treated sewage sludge that have strict requirements for pollutant concentrations as well as reduction of pathogens and vector attractions ( USEPA, 1993 ; Virginia Department of Health, 1997 ). Biosolids are valued as a source of plant

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Shaun R. Broderick and Williams B. Evans

government regulations, alternative methods of processing and using municipal sewage have been developed. Specifically, methods have been developed to process sewage sludge from municipalities into a soil amendment, termed “biosolids.” The quality of the

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Rita L. Hummel, Craig Cogger, Andy Bary, and Robert Riley

al., 2010 ). Tagro mix is a garden amendment made from Class A biosolids from the City of Tacoma (50%), screened sand (25%), and sawdust (25%). Biosolids are a residual product of wastewater treatment (sewage sludge) that has been treated to meet U

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Chantal J. Beauchamp, Yves Desjardins, Serge Yelle, and André Gosselin

Canadian environmental policies are aimed at reducing by 50%. the quantities of refuses intended for landfill by year 2000. In this perspective, landspreading and composting biosolids have been investigated as solutions. Paper sludges, wood wastes, and municipal solid wastes (MSW) are important components of landfill biosolids, but they are attractive by-products for agricultural use. Research projects were initiated to characterize the paper sludges produced by Daishowa Co. in Quebec City, wood wastes produced by Hydro-Quebec, and MSW composts produced from waste treatment at RITDM (Chertsey) and Conporec (Sorel). De-inked paper sludge and wood wastes have been landspreaded for growing potato and landscaping, whereas composted paper sludges have been evaluated as part of potting media for growing greenhouse plants and landspreaded for turfgrass production. The chemical and biological characteristics of these biosolids were investigated for their fertilization potential and their effect on plant growth.

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Ronnie W. Schnell, Donald M. Vietor, Richard H. White, Tony L. Provin, and Clyde L. Munster

Organic amendments, including municipal and animal sources of biosolids, can be applied to improve soil physical and chemical properties and turfgrass establishment, growth, and quality ( McCoy, 1998 ). Although the amendments contribute total and

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Xiaoyan Dai, Donald M. Vietor, Frank M. Hons, Tony L. Provin, Richard H. White, Thomas W. Boutton, and Clyde L. Munster

Top-dressings of composted municipal biosolids (CMB) increase nutrient concentrations in soil and clippings and enhance turfgrass color, quality, and growth ( Garling and Boehm, 2001 ; Hansen et al., 2007 ; Johnson et al., 2005 ). In addition

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John J. Sloan, Raul I. Cabrera, Peter A.Y. Ampim, Steve A. George, and Wayne A. Mackay

such as compost and biosolids (BS). Because expanded shale can absorb water and soluble nutrients, it is possible that it would absorb nutrients released from mineralized organic matter and extend the time they are retained in the plant rooting zone