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James Shippen, Paul Alexander and Barbara May

Shoemaker, 2009 ). By better understanding the biomechanics of digging, it may be possible to reduce the risk of injury through improved advice, training, and awareness raising. As understanding of the musculoskeletal system develops, as well as the ability

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Martin Brüggenwirth and Moritz Knoche

.C. Speck, T. Neinhuis, C. 2004 Two-dimensional tension tests in plant biomechanics: Sweet cherry fruit skin as a model system Plant Biol. 6 432 439 Beyer, M. Peschel, S. Knoche, M. Knörgen, M. 2002 Studies on water transport through the sweet cherry fruit

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Thomas E. Marler and John H. Lawrence

direction that deviated from the maximum wind vector ( Table 1 ). We did not correlate stem diameter with biomechanical failure in Typhoon Paka. However, for the trees in our observations after Typhoon Chaba, diameter did not appear to be a factor because

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Antonio J. Matas, Eward D. Cobb, Dominick J. Paolillo Jr. and Karl J. Niklas

The mechanical properties and anatomy of fruit wall peels and their enzyme-isolated cuticular membranes (CM) are reported for three cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars that are crack-resistant, crack-intermediate, and crack-prone (i.e., Inbred 10, Sweet 100, and Sausalito Cocktail, respectively). The resistant and intermediate fruit peels strain-hardened when extended progressively; those of the crack-prone cultivar did so only modestly. The CM of all cultivars strain-hardened when extended with small forces; the CM of the intermediate and crack-prone cultivars strain-softened under tensile forces that did not strain-soften the crack-resistant cultivar. The peels and CM of the resistant cultivar were stiffer, stronger, and required more energy to break than crack-prone peels. The CM of crack-resistant peels developed deeper within the subepidermis than in the crack-prone or crack-intermediate peels. The CM in the outer epidermal periclinal walls of the crack-resistant and crack-intermediate cultivars was thicker than that of crack-prone peels. These data indicate that CM thickness can be used to gauge crack susceptibility among cherry tomato fruit, which can be useful in breeding programs and would facilitate QTL mapping of the underlying genetic factors.

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Katrin Kahlen and Hartmut Stützel

from the top of the plant downward. Lastly, we were looking for allometric relationships based on biomechanical approaches focused on lamina mass and petiole attributes. Materials and Methods Plant culture. All experiments were conducted

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Thomas E. Marler

young papaya plants ( Clemente and Marler, 2001 ). Biomechanical properties of plants improve as a result of exposure to non-catastrophic wind ( Cullen, 2002 ; de Langre, 2008 ; Niklas, 1998 ; Schaetzl et al., 1989 ). Therefore, reduced absolute

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Olga Dichala, Ioannis Therios, Magdalene Koukourikou-Petridou and Aristotelis Papadopoulos

greater strength and low cracking of pomegranate fruits. Previous studies ( Saei et al., 2014 ) on biomechanical behavior of plant tissue illustrate that its higher calcium concentration changes plant tissues’ biomechanical behavior, making them harder and

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Biomechanical Analysis: A Tool to Reduce Worker Injuries Horticultural workers often suffer musculoskeletal injuries. High musculoskeletal forces are correlated with increased risks of injury. By applying optical tracking equipment to individual

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Sin-Ae Park, Sae-Room Oh, Kwan-Suk Lee and Ki-Cheol Son

the biomechanics of human or animal movement ( Bolgla and Uhl, 2007 ; De Luca, 1997 ). In a previous study, muscle activation for the motions of flower arrangements such as cutting, bending, and winding were analyzed by EMG ( Lee et al., 2012

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Bishnu P. Khanal, Rejina Shrestha, Leonie Hückstädt and Moritz Knoche

-MCP applied postharvest on epicuticular wax of apples ( Malus domestica Borkh.) during storage J. Sci. Food Agr. 88 996 1006 Dominguez, E. Cuartero, J. Heredia, A. 2011 An overview on plant cuticle biomechanics Plant Sci. 181 77 84 Faust, M. Shear, C