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Richard V. Tyson, Eric H. Simonne, Danielle D. Treadwell, James M. White and Amarat Simonne

recirculating aquaculture systems is the biofiltration of fish waste ammonia through nitrification to maintain fish tank water quality ( Gutierrez-Wing and Malone, 2006 ; Masser et al., 1999 ). This is necessary because 10% of the protein in fish feed becomes

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Yan Chen, Regina P. Bracy, Allen D. Owings and Donald J. Merhaut

necessary to improve water quality before it is discharged into the ecosystem from stormwater retention structures. More recently, biofiltration systems have been developed ( Davis, 2005 , 2007 ). Research to date suggests that planted retention structures

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Richard V. Tyson, Danielle D. Treadwell and Eric H. Simonne

roots ( Rakocy et al., 2006 ). Most biofiltration in recirculating systems are aerobic, fixed-film biofilters (submerged bed, rotating disk, fluidized bed, and trickling). Of these, the trickling biofilter can also be used as a root growth medium and

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Erin P. MacNeal and Robert D. Berghage

Recirculating irrigation systems (RISs) conserve water and decrease fertilizer application, providing cost-effective alternatives to other watering methods in greenhouses. However, RISs can potentially become contaminated from spray or drench pesticide applications. In this study, we determined the amount of metalaxyl residues (the active ingredient in Subdue) in RISs over 3 and 6 weeks using HPLC analysis. Also examined was the potential use of constructed wetlands for the remediation of RIS water contaminated with metalaxyl. Metalaxyl was found to persist in a RIS over 6 weeks with no decrease in concentration. After repeated metalaxyl treatments over an 11 month period, a possible breakdown product or chemical modification of metalaxyl was present in the RISs. Drench applications, 150 ml of an 18.8 ppm metalaxyl solution, (recommended dosage) resulted in 0.5 to 3.0 ppm contamination levels in the RISs. Small scale (≈70 L void volume), indoor, constructed wetlands (two planted with Scirpus and Iris, two unvegetated) were treated with 420 mg metalaxyl. Limited breakdown of metalaxyl occurred in the constructed wetlands during the first 30 days after treatment. After 3 months, metalaxyl concentrations in all wetlands had decreased or were below detection levels. This indicates a possible selection of microbial populations capable of metabolizing or degrading metalaxyl.

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R.D. Berghage

Constructed wetland biofilters have been widely used in recent years to provide secondary or tertiary water treatment, effectively reducing BOD, TSS, nitrate and ammonium, and some organic pollutants from municipal, industrial, and agricultural waste sources. The greenhouse and nursery industries, like all agricultural enterprises, have found themselves under increasing pressure to reduce or eliminate discharge of contaminated wastewater. In response, many greenhouse and nursery operators have installed, and are using, a variety of runoff containment and recirculating irrigation systems. While effective in reducing or eliminating wastewater discharge, these systems can become contaminated themselves and require treatment of the water before it can be reused in the irrigation system. Further, if the water should become contaminated and unusable, environmental discharge of this spent water from a recirculating irrigation system is perhaps even more problematic than simply allowing the excess irrigation water to be dumped in the first place. Potential contaminants in a recirculating irrigation system could include pesticide and other organic residues, excess fertilizer and non-fertilizer salts, and plant pathogens. The primary concern in greenhouse and nursery discharge wastewater is usually fertilizer salts, although pesticide and other organic chemical residues may also be of concern. Biological filtration using constructed wetlands may be a simple low-cost method for greenhouses and nurseries to treat these contaminants.

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Creighton K. Thomas, Kwang Jin Kim and Stanley J. Kays

rate ( Son and Choi, 2009 ; Wolverton and Wolverton, 1995 ) and with plant biofiltration walls ( Darlington et al., 2001 ) where the air is circulated through a porous vertical wall of plants and microbe-containing root media, the removal rate is

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Kwang Jin Kim, Myeong Il Jeong, Dong Woo Lee, Jeong Seob Song, Hyoung Deug Kim, Eun Ha Yoo, Sun Jin Jeong, Seung Won Han, Stanley J. Kays, Young-Wook Lim and Ho-Hyun Kim

phyllosphere is also colonized by a diverse array of microorganisms ( Mercier and Lindow, 2000 ). Therefore, rhizospheric and phyllospheric microorganisms as well as stomate-mediated absorption provide a means of biofiltration of VOCs from indoor air. As a

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Michael A. Arnold

contributing relevant research and design innovations in green roofs, living walls, and biofiltration systems. Horticulture is also a relevant component in efforts to improve community resiliency. Improved aesthetic designs in landscapes contribute to an

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Kwang Jin Kim, Mi Jung Kil, Jeong Seob Song, Eun Ha Yoo, Ki-Cheol Son and Stanley J. Kays

inoculation of the leaf surface with microorganisms increased the rate of removal of volatile toluene. Therefore, rhizospheric and phyllospheric microorganisms, as well as stomate-mediated absorption, provide a means of biofiltration of VOC from the indoor air