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Bethany A. Harris, Wojciech J. Florkowski, and Svoboda V. Pennisi

in the United States, with petroleum-based plastic containers accounting for 1.6 billion pounds of plastic ( Schrader, 2013 ). Moving toward sustainability, the green industry has shown an increased interest in biodegradable containers in the United

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Susmitha Nambuthiri, Amy Fulcher, Andrew K. Koeser, Robert Geneve, and Genhua Niu

al., 2009 ). Green industry stakeholders (i.e., nursery, greenhouse, and landscape professionals) have identified the use of plantable or compostable biodegradable container alternatives as a marketable way to improve the sustainability of current

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Jeff S. Kuehny, Matt Taylor, and Michael R. Evans

pounds of plastic were used in agriculture in 2002 ( Levitan and Barros, 2003 ). There are numerous types of alternative, biodegradable containers that can be composted or planted directly into the soil, which eliminate the need for plastic containers

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Stephanie A. Beeks and Michael R. Evans

times and are often grown on subirrigation systems such as ebb-and-flood benches or flood floors. Therefore, the objective for this research was to evaluate the growth of a long-term greenhouse containerized crop in biodegradable containers compared with

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Richard L. Harkess, Geoffrey C. Denny, Eugene K. Blythe, and Xiaojie Zhao

). Traditionally, when plants are grown in plastic containers, evaporative loss of water is mainly through the substrate surface rather than the container sidewall because plastic containers are impervious to water. Use of biodegradable containers as a sustainable

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Charles R. Hall, Benjamin L. Campbell, Bridget K. Behe, Chengyan Yue, Roberto G. Lopez, and Jennifer H. Dennis

compostable because they are broken down by naturally occurring microorganisms into carbon dioxide, water, and biomass when composted or discarded ( White, 2009 ). Biodegradable containers are those that can be planted directly into the soil or composted and

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Richard L. Harkess, Geoffrey C. Denny, and Carolyn Scagel

; Koeser et al., 2013 ; Kuehny et al., 2011 ; Nambuthiri et al., 2015 ; Wang et al., 2015 ). Biodegradable containers, also known as biocontainers, are made from a variety of biodegradable materials, such as feather, fabric, rice hulls, and paper, thus

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Richard L. Harkess, and Eugene K. Blythe

; volume, 3.8 L; Nursery Supplies, Chambersburg, PA) and a biodegradable container (also referred to as a biocontainer) made from a mix of recycled paper (7 × 7 RD; interior top, diameter 18.7 cm; bottom diameter, 14.9 cm; height, 17.1 cm; volume, 3.9 L

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, and Richard L. Harkess

( Chang et al., 2012 ). With sufficient N supply, the increase of N content in a plant was believed to be determined by the growth rate of plants rather than by different species or climatic conditions ( Gastal and Lemaire, 2002 ). Biodegradable containers

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James A. Schrader, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David Grewell, Kenneth G. McCabe, and William R. Graves

many other bioplastic feedstocks ( Srinivasan, 2010 ). In addition to being biorenewable and biodegradable, containers made of soy-based plastics and composites have strong potential to supply an added function over that of petroleum-based plastics