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J.J. Worrall and C.S. Yang

A mixture of apple pomace and sawdust was tested as a substrate for production of shiitake [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] and oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer and P. sajor-caju (Fr.) Sing.] on synthetic logs. MyCelia grew faster and more densely in logs containing apple pomace than in sawdust alone. Five shiitake isolates and two Pleurotus spp. produced higher fresh weights on a mixture of equal parts (by weight) of apple pomace and sawdust than on either substrate alone. An alternative substrate based on sawdust, millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), bran gave almost identical overall yield as pomace-sawdust medium, but there was a significant differential effect of the substrates on yield of the two tested shiitake isolates. Analyses and experiments in vitro suggested that optimal N levels provided by apple pomace account in part for its effectiveness.

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Weiguang Yi and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

compounds could be associated with increased free radical scavenging activity as a result of heating in nutmeg ( Myristica fragrans ). Similar bioconversion phenomena were reported in Artemisia annua leaves ( Ferreira and Luthria, 2010 ). Increase in

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Juan L. Silva, Mandar Patel, Jelena Stojanovic, Youkai Lu, Taejo Kim, and Thomas Horgan

. Rev. Phytopathol. 13 295 312 Cox, M.S. 2001 The Lancaster soil test method as an alternative to the Mehlich 3 soil test method Soil Sci. 166 484 489 Das, K. Tollner, E.W. Annis, P.A. 1997 Bioconversion process design applied to textile industry solid

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Raymond A. Cloyd, Karen A. Marley, Richard A. Larson, and Bari Arieli

Service North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC Braddock, R.J. Cadwallader, K.R. 1995 Bioconversion of citrus d-limonene 142 147 Rouseff R.C. Leahy M.M. Fruit flavors: Biogenesis

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Neda Keyhaninejad, Richard D. Richins, and Mary A. O’Connell

.A. Bosland, P.W. 2001 Variation in β-carotene and total carotenoid content in fruits of Capsicum HortScience 36 746 749 Yeum, K.J. Russell, R.M. 2002 Carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion Annu. Rev. Nutr. 22 483 504

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Xue Li, Chen Zang, Hang Ge, Jing Zhang, Donald Grierson, Xue-ren Yin, and Kun-song Chen

substance adversely impacting on bioconversion and energy production from plants ( Carroll and Somerville, 2009 ; Xu et al., 2011 ). In the past decade, the influence of lignin accumulation on fruit quality has been studied in various fruit species, such as

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Dean A. Kopsell, J. Scott McElroy, Carl E. Sams, and David E. Kopsell

> Williams, P.H. Hill, C.B. 1986 Rapid cycling populations of Brassica Science 232 1385 1389 Yeum, K.-J. Russell, R.M. 2002 Carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion Annu. Rev. Nutr. 22 483

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Mohammed El-Sayed El-Mahrouk, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Salah El-Hendawy

showed that pH, EC, and salinity values were within the range suitable for seed germination ( Table 1 ). Composts with a high pH value can frequently occur after bioconversion, which severely restricts their use as growing media in nursery crop production

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Guangtian Cao, Tingting Song, Yingyue Shen, Qunli Jin, Weilin Feng, Lijun Fan, and Weiming Cai

. Vukojević, J. Milovanović, I. Ćilerdžić, J. Knežević, A. 2016 Role of mushroom Mn-oxidizing peroxidases in biomass conversion, p. 251–269. In: V.K. Gupta (ed.). Microbial enzymes in bioconversion of biomass. Springer International Publishing AG, Basel

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, T. Casey Barickman, and Robert C. Morrow

bioavailability and bioconversion Annu. Rev. Nutr. 22 483 504 Yorio, N.C. Goins, G.D. Kagia, H.R. Wheeler, R.M. Sager, J.C. 2001 Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation HortScience 36 380