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Andrew Koeser, Gary Kling, Candice Miller, and Daniel Warnock

, biocontainers as a whole have yet to be widely embraced by the greenhouse and nursery industry. Hall et al. (2009) found that over 22% of growers surveyed indicated that they had used biocontainers in their operations. Of the remaining 78% that participated in

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Andrew Koeser, Sarah T. Lovell, Michael Evans, and J. Ryan Stewart

Although biocontainers (i.e., plant material–based containers) have emerged as a response to excessive plastic landfill waste, their adoption in the green industry could significantly increase crop watering requirements. Water availability has

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Richard L. Harkess, Geoffrey C. Denny, Eugene K. Blythe, and Xiaojie Zhao

alternative to plastic containers can alter water consumption characteristics of container-grown plants ( Koeser et al., 2013a ; Wang et al., 2015 ). Biocontainers constructed with materials such as peat, wood fiber, straw, or paper are highly porous and tend

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, and Richard L. Harkess

, also referred as biocontainers, have been investigated in recent years as sustainable alternatives to conventional plastic containers ( Hall et al., 2010 ; Nambuthiri et al., 2015 ; White, 2009 ). A variety of biocontainers made from materials such as

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Richard L. Harkess, Geoffrey C. Denny, and Carolyn Scagel

; Koeser et al., 2013 ; Kuehny et al., 2011 ; Nambuthiri et al., 2015 ; Wang et al., 2015 ). Biodegradable containers, also known as biocontainers, are made from a variety of biodegradable materials, such as feather, fabric, rice hulls, and paper, thus

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Kenneth G. McCabe, James A. Schrader, Christopher J. Currey, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

, biocontainers are being developed and evaluated as alternatives that are sustainable and biorenewable ( Beeks and Evans, 2013a , 2013b ; Evans and Karcher, 2004 ; Helgeson et al., 2009 ; Helgeson et al., 2010 ; Koeser et al., 2013a , 2013b ; Kuehny et al

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Genhua Niu, Susmitha S. Nambuthiri, Robert L. Geneve, Xueni Wang, R. Thomas Fernandez, Youping Sun, and Xiaojie Zhao

The widespread use and disposal of petroleum-based plastic containers in the green industry has generated serious concerns ( Evans and Hensley, 2004 ; Hall et al., 2009 ; Levitan and Barros, 2003 ). Biocontainers are containers made of

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Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

plant containers (often referred to as biocontainers) offer an alternative to petroleum plastic containers in container crop production ( Kuehny et al., 2011 ). Compared with PP containers, fiber-based biocontainers have relatively poor water

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Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

of parboiled rice ( Oryza sativa ) hulls in substrate does not ( Currey et al., 2010 ). Biocontainers, which provide an alternative to petroleum plastic plant containers, can be manufactured from a variety of organic parent materials and vary in both

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Andrew K. Koeser, Guihong Bi, Victoria Anderson, Krista Jacobsen, Renee Conneway, Sven Verlinden, Ryan Stewart, and Sarah T. Lovell

meet the demands of society, the use of biocontainers as alternatives to plastic containers has drawn significant attention, especially because they do not have the same disposal issues as plastic containers. A wide variety of biocontainers are