Leaf tissue from 10 Buxus spp. cultivars were collected and evaluated for differences in isozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In addition, samples of named cultivars were collected from multiple locations to estimate the degree of cultivar fidelity across locations. In general, isozymes were highly polymorphic among cultivars. Aconitase, malate dehydrogenase, aminoaspartate transferase, and phosphoglucose isomerase were the most useful isozymes to distinguish among the selected clones. Good quality DNA was readily extracted from leaf tissue using a standard CTAB procedure. RAPDs were generated from polymerase chain reactions using a random set of primers. Of 200 primers that were screened, 20 gave reproducible and polymorphic patterns that could be used to distinguish among the boxwood cultivars. In general, cultivar fidelity among commercial nurseries was fair. Biochemical analyses could be used to resolve problems with cultivar identity once baseline information is collected.
Robert D. Marquard, Charlotte R. Chan, and Eric P. Davis
S.E. Gardiner, H.C.M. Bassett, C. Madie, and D.A.M. Noiton
Information about a rare allele of phosphoglucomutase (PGM) that is shared by `Braeburn' and 16% of cultivars in the New Zealand Cultivar Collection was combined with historical information about cultivar distribution to select a set of 15 cultivars for a more detailed genetic analysis of their relatedness to the key New Zealand apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) `Braeburn'. DNA from all 16 cultivars was examined by RFLP analysis using 41 probe-enzyme combinations and also by RAPD analysis with 39 selected primers. The RFLP and RAPD data excluded a proposal that `Lady Hamilton' and `Braeburn' are genetically identical. All cultivars except `Lady Hamilton' were excluded as potential parents for `Braeburn' based on incompatible RFLP banding. Assessment of genetic distances between `Braeburn' and the other 15 cultivars from RFLP and RAPD data demonstrated that `Lady Hamilton' was more closely related to `Braeburn' than all others. We conclude that there is a high likelihood that `Lady Hamilton' is one of the parents of `Braeburn'.
Alefsi David Sánchez-Reinoso, Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto-Moreno, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz
breeding selection in common bean. Finally, common bean cultivar selection through the use of biochemical markers can be complemented by the estimation of leaf gas exchange parameters at different phenological stages. Literature Cited Aranjuelo, I. Molero
David B. Rubino
Segregating lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Griseb.) Shinn.] progeny were evaluated to determine the inheritance of esterase (EST), diaphorase (DIA), and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) isozymes. Phenotypic data supported the hypotheses that EST is monomeric and controlled by one locus (Est1) with at least three alleles, DIA is tetrameric and controlled by one locus (Dia2) with at least two alleles, and GPI is controlled by one locus (Gpil) with at least two alleles. The structure of the GPI isozyme could not be inferred from banding patterns. Joint segregation analyses indicated that the three loci segregate independently. These three isozymes are the first simply inherited, unlinked biochemical markers identified in lisianthus. These marker loci will be useful for genetic studies, breeding, and germplasm characterization.
Charlotte R. Chan and Robert D. Marquard
The Holden Arboretum, established in 1931, is the largest arboretum in the United States. Its mission is to promote the knowledge and appreciation of plants for personal enjoyment, inspiration, and recreation; for scientific research; and for educational and aesthetic purposes. Of the Arboretum's 3100 acres, 800 acres support collections and display gardens, while the balance comprise natural areas. The collections include nearly 8,000 accessions from 76 plant families; about 700 plant species, some rare or endangered, occupy the natural areas. The education component of the mission connects the Arboretum with the public through school programs, classes, horticultural therapy, and seasonal internships. Two research fellowships are also available. The Holden Arboretum has expanded the research emphasis. The David G. Leach Research Station, part of the Arboretum since 1986, focuses on rhododendron and magnolia breeding and research. Built in 1993, the Horticulture Science Center is a modern research and production facility able to more fully implement and support a broad range of formal horticultural research. The main objective of the research program is to develop superior woody ornamentals for the landscape through hybridization. Additional research emphasizes reproductive biology and using biochemical markers (isozymes and RAPDs) to answer basic questions about the genera under study (Aesculus, Hamamelis, Cercis).
Gregory A. Lang and Joshua Tao
Plant dormancy research has long been stifled by the lack of appropriate biochemical markers to characterize the changing physiological status of dormant vegetative or reproductive buds. Two sets of experiments were conducted in an attempt to identify changes in soluble protein profiles during endodormancy of peach and blueberry reproductive apices. Bud samples from the peach cultivars `La Festival' (low chilling requirement) and `La White' (moderate chilling requirement) were taken every 15 days in the orchard during December and January, extracted for soluble proteins, and analyzed by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Outshoots were forced at 25C in a growth chamber to determine the intensity of endodormancy. A further experiment utilized potted `Bluechip' and `Meader' (troth high chilling requirement) blueberry plants given varying periods of cold (4.5C) chamber treatment, followed by forcing at 25C in a growth chamber. Bud samples were taken following cold treatment for extraction and SDS-PAGE. The relationship of the resulting protein profiles to chilling unit accumulation and intensity of endodormancy will be discussed.
Li-Qiang Tan, Xin-Yu Wang, Hui Li, Guan-Qun Liu, Yao Zou, Shen-Xiang Chen, Ping-Wu Li, and Qian Tang
et al., 2017 ). The CI has been frequently used as a biochemical marker for studying the genetic diversity and tea quality of tea germplasm ( Gulati et al., 2009 ; Jin et al., 2014 ; Magoma et al., 2000 ; Saravanan et al., 2005 ). A recent study
Pei Xu, Tingting Hu, Yuejian Yang, Xiaohua Wu, Baogen Wang, Yonghua Liu, Dehui Qin, Jeffrey Ehlers, Timothy Close, Zhongfu Lu, and Guojing Li
.E. Gillaspie, A.G. Roberts, P.A. Ismail, A.M. Bruening, G. Gepts, P. Timko, M.P. Belzile, F.J. 2002 An improved genetic linkage map for cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L.) combining AFLP, RFLP, RAPD, biochemical markers, and biological resistance traits Genome 45
Zhongshuai Gai, Yu Wang, Jutang Jiang, Hui Xie, Zhaotang Ding, Shibo Ding, and Hui Wang
.N. Bhagobaty, R.K. 2010 Assessment of the genetic variability present in the tea germplasm of a tea garden in Assam, India using morphological and biochemical markers J. of Tea 36 133 139 Degu, A. Hochberg, U. Sikron, N. Venturini, L. Buson, G. Ghan, R
Antar Nasr El-Banna, Mohammed Elsayed El-Mahrouk, Mohammed Eraky El-Denary, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Yougasphree Naidoo
, without epistatic and pleotropic effects and are interpretable as genes and loci. Molecular markers, which detect variation at the DNA level overcome most of the limitations of morphological and biochemical markers. As demonstrated by their use in various