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Kim E. Hummer, James R. Ballington, Chad E. Finn, and Thomas M. Davis

potential for cultivation in America. This article summarizes examples of Asian influence in American berry crops. In the strawberry genus, Fragaria L., different ploidy levels are endemic in separate regions or continents ( Staudt, 2009 ). Diploid (2 n

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Robert K. Prange and Jennifer R. DeEll

Berry crops can include a wide variety of plant species, with the most important temperate North American species in the genera Fragaria, Rubus, and Vaccinium. The preharvest factors affecting the postharvest quality of berry crops can be divided into abiotic and biotic factors. Amongst the abiotic factors, mineral nutrition, especially calcium and nitrogen, water, temperature, and light play important roles in postharvest quality attributes such as size, color, firmness, acidity, and sweetness. Amongst the biotic factors, several postharvest pathogens, which are also present as preharvest pathogens, can cause very significant reductions in postharvest quality. Grey mold (Botrytis cinera) is considered to be the most important pre- and postharvest pathogen in berry crops, but other preharvest pathogens (e.g., Alternaria, Colletotrichum, and Rhizopus) can become major problems, depending on other preharvest factors. In some growing areas, the presence of fruit fly larvae in the fresh fruit reduces the postharvest quality. Other biotic factors can be more subtle in their effects on postharvest quality, such as cultivar, pruning, and pollination.

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Joseph Monson and Denise Mainville

relatively few producers in Virginia currently grow berry crops commercially, they offer a potentially high-value market and can be produced on smaller-scale farms, making them attractive to producers who are seeking alternatives to commodity production. A

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Kim E. Hummer, Tom Davis, Hiroyuki Iketani, and Hiroyuki Imanishi

Genetic resources of temperate berry crops were collected 7 to 27 July 2004 in Hokkaido, Japan, under a bilateral agreement between the United States and Japan. This expedition was a collaborative effort between the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), the University of New Hampshire, and Akita Prefectural College of Agriculture, Japan. Additional assistance was provided by the Hokkaido Governmental Plant Genetic Resources Center, several Forest Research Stations of the Hokkaido University, and private botanists. The expedition obtained 100 accessions encompassing eight genera and 29 species. In all, 84 seedlots, and 23 plants were obtained. The genera collected included: Actinidia, Fragaria, Lonicera, Morus, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus, and Vaccinium. Plant and seed accessions from this trip are preserved and distributed from the USDA ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, Ore., and from MAFF. The target genus for this expedition was Fragaria, so the trip was planned for July. Multiple samples of the two Japanese diploid strawberry species, Fragaria iinumae Makino and F. nipponica Makino (synonym = F. yezoensis H. Hara) were obtained during their prime ripening time. Ribes, Rubus, and Vaccinium fruits ripened later in the summer, but were collected when fruit were observed. Unfortunately, seeds of some of these accessions proved to be immature or nonviable upon extraction. We suggest that expeditions to collect these genera should be planned for late August. Morphological and molecular evaluation of collected germplasm is underway at the USDA ARS Corvallis Repository and at the University of New Hampshire.

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Robert K. Prange and Jennifer R. DeEll

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

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Adam Dale

Genetic variation in the architecture of berry crops will be reviewed. Examples will be given where changes in plant architecture have given increased yields, stabilized yields and improved fruit quality in strawberry, raspberry, highbush blueberry and currants.

Red raspberry will be emphasised as recent research on the architecture of the fruiting cane has enabled breeding strategies, based on plant architecture, to be developed.

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Bernadine Strik, Timothy Righetti, and Gil Buller

1 Professor, berry crops research leader, North Willamette Research and Extension Center; e-mail strikb@science.oregonstate.edu . 2 Professor. 3 Research assistant, North Willamette Research and Extension Center. The authors thank the Oregon

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Kathleen Demchak

High tunnels are a relatively economical form of protected culture, and offer cultural advantages such as protection from the elements and an extended production season. Interest in high tunnels for small fruit production has been increasing in North America. Growers in the United States and Canada are using multi-bay and single-bay high tunnels for production of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis), blackberry (Rubus subgenus Rubus), strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa), and blueberry (Vaccinium spp.). Research trials using high tunnels are being conducted in numerous places across the United States. In most instances, high tunnels increased yields of berry crops, improved quality, and decreased the incidence of most diseases compared with field production, powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis) being a notable exception. The insect and mite complex encountered in tunnels when growing berry crops has changed markedly, often becoming similar to that which might have been expected in greenhouses, with numbers of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), whitefly (Aleyrodidae), and thrips (Frankliniella spp.) reaching high levels without control measures. In studies at The Pennsylvania State University, primocane-bearing cultivars of red raspberry plants produced at least two to three times as much marketable fruit in tunnels as in a previous field study, with substantial summer and fall crops obtained. ‘Triple Crown’ thornless blackberry produced very high marketable yields in the tunnels, even though winter injury historically resulted in a lack of blackberry production in the field. Strawberry production in a plasticulture system using short-day or day-neutral cultivars was found to be viable; however, the primary benefit of high tunnels for strawberry may have been reliability of production rather than a yield increase. Potential reasons for improvements in productivity and quality are numerous and warrant further attention.