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James A. Schrader, Diana R. Cochran, Paul A. Domoto, and Gail R. Nonnecke

produce crops that consistently meet acceptable standards of fruit yield and quality (berry composition). Achieving consistent production of high-quality fruit has been identified as one of the most important factors for improving the commercial appeal of

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Patsy E. Wilson, Douglas D. Archbold, Joseph G. Masabni, and S. Kaan Kurtural

pruning and cluster thinning on canopy architecture, yield components, and berry composition of ‘Vidal blanc’ grapevines. Materials and Methods Plant material and study location. This study was conducted in a non-irrigated commercial vineyard in Lexington

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Alison L. Reeve, Patricia A. Skinkis, Amanda J. Vance, Katherine R. McLaughlin, Elizabeth Tomasino, Jungmin Lee, and Julie M. Tarara

at véraison, using the method described in Reeve et al. (2016) and data are reported therein. Leaf blade N was chosen for regression analysis with berry composition data, as leaf blades have been shown to correlate better with vine measures than

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Michael E. Tarter and Stefano Poni

The hypotheses considered in this article concern the basic question, besides bearing a wing, in what ways do wing-bearing and non-wing-bearing clusters differ? Vines sampled at midseason were again selected at harvest. Each weight of a Vitis vinifera cluster sampled at midseason was multiplied by the number of clusters on the vine from which the cluster had been selected. Correlation coefficients between this quantity and the sampled vine's yield at harvest differed significantly in the sense that coefficients determined solely from the subset of sampled clusters on which a wing (a lateral arm originating from the peduncle and separate from the main body of the cluster) was present were found to be larger than coefficients determined from all sampled clusters. To shed light on distinguishing characteristics of clusters that bore wings, the weights of clusters that had been sampled at midseason were studied. Despite being weighed after the removal of their wings, clusters that had wings were found to be significantly heavier than clusters (sampled at the same midseason date) that had never had wings. Box and whisker plots were constructed to assess this finding as well to study the relationships between a Vitis vinifera rachis' (a cluster's principal axis) weight, length, and diameter and wing absence or presence. For each of the five vineyard blocks that we studied, the median rachis midseason diameters of wing-bearing clusters exceeded the median rachis diameters of non-wing-bearing clusters. Concerning ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ Vitis vinifera clusters that had wings, it was also found that the late-season differences between the median soluble solids concentrations (°Brix) of wing-borne berries and the median °Brix of non-wing-borne berries were inappreciable.

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Ben-Hong Wu, Ning Niu, Ji-Hu Li, and Shao-Hua Li

leaves) retained for one cluster per shoot. Girdles of ≈10 mm width were made on the shoot-bearing cordon. Sampling and berry composition. Three replicates of two clusters from each of the two treatments were sampled every 5 to 8 d from 24 DAA (18 June

Open access

Ying Wang, Tingting Xue, Xing Han, Lingxiao Guan, Liang Zhang, Hua Wang, and Hua Li

Kaolin particle film (KPF) is an aqueous formulation of chemically inert mineral particles that can be sprayed on the surface of crops to form a protective film, resulting in increased fruit yield and quality. In this work, the effects of kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in ‘Meili’ (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes were investigated under different growth stages over two growing seasons. The 100-berry weight and titratable acid content were decreased, and the sugar and soluble solid contents were increased in grapes of plants treated with kaolin over 2 years. Compared with grapes from plants not sprayed with kaolin, the levels of total phenol, flavonoid, flavanol, tannin, and anthocyanins of grapes from plants treated with kaolin for 2 years were mostly increased. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis also revealed an increased content of monomeric anthocyanin and changed anthocyanin composition. However, there was little effect on the volatile compounds in the grapes. These results demonstrate that KPF can facilitate the accumulation of sugar and phenolics, thereby improving grape quality even in a humid climate.

Open access

S. Kaan Kurtural, Andrew E. Beebe, Johann Martínez-Lüscher, Shijian Zhuang, Karl T. Lund, Glenn McGourty, and Larry J. Bettiga

vineyard management that have increased production efficiency along with the ability to improve yield and berry composition. Recent vineyard mechanization research performed in California in a climate corresponding to Region V of the Winkler scale [>2222

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Imed E. Dami, Shouxin Li, Patricia A. Bowen, Carl P. Bogdanoff, Krista C. Shellie, and Jim Willwerth

affecting yield or berry composition and to determine the most effective vine phenological stage for its application. We hypothesized that the effectiveness of foliar ABA to increase FT would be influenced by the phenological stage of the vine at the time of

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Derek W. Barchenger, John R. Clark, Renee T. Threlfall, Luke R. Howard, and Cindi R. Brownmiller

Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are native to the southeastern United States and have potential for greater fresh-market sales if postharvest storage can be improved, but limited information is available on postharvest storability. In 2012 and 2013, physiochemical and storability attributes were measured in 17 muscadine genotypes (selections and cultivars) from the muscadine breeding program at the University of Arkansas or commercial cultivars. The postharvest and physiochemical attributes of the muscadines were measured at harvest and during storage for 3 weeks at 2 °C. Nutraceutical compounds were measured initially after harvest. As a result of extreme differences in weather in 2012 and 2013, the data were analyzed by year. Genotypes significantly affected storage attributes [weight loss (%), and unmarketable berries (%)] and physiochemical attributes such as penetration force (force to penetrate berry skin), titratable acidity (TA), pH, soluble solids (%), berry color (L*, chroma, and hue) as well as the nutraceutical compounds. The postharvest attributes of weight loss and unmarketable berries and the physiochemical attribute of penetration force were significantly affected by postharvest storage, but berry composition attributes remained fairly constant during storage. Overall, University of Arkansas selections AM 04, AM 26, AM 28, and the cultivar Southern Jewel had the highest potential for postharvest storage, whereas the genotypes AM 01, AM 15, AM 18, and ‘Nesbitt’ had the least potential. Genotypes AM 03, AM 04, AM 27, and ‘Ison’ had the highest nutraceutical contents [total anthocyanins, total phenolics, total flavonols, resveratrol, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)], whereas AM 18, AM 28, ‘Supreme’, and ‘Tara’ had the lowest contents. Postharvest storage potential, berry composition, berry color, and nutraceutical content were genotype-specific, but commercially viable genotypes were identified that can provide genetic material for breeding programs and postharvest evaluation protocol for commercial use.

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Thiago Vieira da Costa, João Alexio Scarpare Filho, and Matthew W. Fidelibus

In two experiments, various combinations of ethephon, with or without 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC), were applied to the fruiting zone of ‘Selma Pete’ raisin grapes (Vitis vinifera) to determine whether any could serve as a defoliant, and if so, whether defoliation improved subsequent vine drying of the grapes. In the first experiment, the fruiting zone was treated on 8 Aug. 2013 with a control (water) and one of four plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments: 1000 ppm ethephon, 1000 ppm ethephon plus 1000 ppm ACC, 2000 ppm ethephon, and 2000 ppm ethephon plus 1000 ppm ACC. In the first experiment, treatment with any of the PGRs hastened leaf senescence, but leaf greenness, measured with a SPAD meter, declined most rapidly in leaves from vines treated with 2000 ppm ethephon or 2000 ppm ethephon plus 1000 ppm ACC, and defoliation was best in vines treated with 2000 ppm ethephon plus 1000 ppm ACC. None of the treatments in the first study affected berry composition, hastened berry drying, or ultimately affected raisin moisture or quality. In a second experiment, initiated 18 days later, a factorial design was employed to determine whether three chemical treatments, a control (water spray), 2000 ppm ethephon, and 2000 ppm ethephon plus 1000 ppm of ACC, might interact with fruiting zone orientation (east or west facing) to affect leaf senescence or berry drying. The second study confirmed that 2000 ppm ethephon and 2000 ppm ethephon plus 1000 ppm ACC induced rapid leaf senescence. Defoliation proceeded more rapidly in the second study and by 13 days after treatment, vines treated with 2000 ppm ethephon plus 1000 ppm ACC had less than one leaf layer remaining in the fruiting zone compared with more than 2.5 leaf layers in untreated vines. Treatments again had no effect on berry fresh weight or composition, but grapes on west-facing vines treated with 2000 ppm ethephon plus 1000 ppm ACC dried significantly better than grapes on vines subjected to other treatments, possibly because the higher temperatures of west-facing vines coupled with better defoliation of the 2000 ppm ethephon plus 1000 ppm ACC treatment was sufficient to improve grape drying compared with vines subjected to other trellis orientation and chemical treatment combinations. Therefore, we conclude that treatment with ethylene-promoting PGRs can defoliate the fruiting zone of ‘Selma Pete’ grapes with divided canopies, and such defoliation treatments may enhance berry drying when drying is initiated later than normal.