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Joe E. Toler, Thomas G. Willis, Alan G. Estes, and Lambert B. McCarty

to 1) evaluate annual bluegrass control in dormant, nonoverseeded bermudagrass turf using various herbicides and herbicide combinations, 2) examine effects of these herbicides on bermudagrass greenup the next spring, and 3) compare annual bluegrass

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Alan L. Wright, Tony L. Provin, Frank M. Hons, David A. Zuberer, and Richard H. White

Application of organic amendments can increase dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations, which may influence movement of nutrients and heavy metals in soils. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of compost sources and application rates on concentrations of soil DOC, NO3-N, and extractable P over 29 months after a one-time application of compost to bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] turf. Few differences were evident between compost sources for soil total organic C (TOC), DOC, and NO3-N. However, the initial P content of compost sources significantly influenced soil extractable P. Increasing the rate of compost application increased soil TOC initially, but levels remained fairly stable over time. In contrast, DOC continued to increase from 3 to 29 months after application, suggesting that compost mineralization and growth of bermudagrass contributed to DOC dynamics in soil. Dissolved organic C was 98%, 128%, 145%, 175%, and 179% greater 29 months after application of 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 Mg compost/ha, respectively, than before application. Rate of compost application had less effect on DOC than TOC, as DOC concentrations appeared controlled in part by bermudagrass growth patterns. Soil NO3-N was generally unaffected by compost application rate, as NO3-N decreased similarly for unamended soil and all compost treatments. Soil extractable P initially increased after compost application, but increasing the application rate generally did not increase P from 3 to 29 months. Seasonal or cyclical patterns of TOC, DOC, and extractable P were observed, as significantly lower levels of these parameters were observed in dormant stages of bermudagrass growth during cooler months.

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Andrew J. Hephner, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck, and Gerald M. Henry

applications of various herbicides for long-term control of khakiweed in bermudagrass turf. Materials and Methods Field experiments were initiated in June 2009 and 2010 at Meadowbrook Golf Course in Lubbock, TX (lat. 33°35′55″ N, long. –101°49′52″ W). Research

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Gerald M. Henry, James T. Brosnan, Greg K. Breeden, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck, and Chase M. Straw

stress. Fall overseeding is a common practice on golf courses and athletic fields in the southern United States. Perennial ryegrass may persist in bermudagrass turf for three to nine months depending on geographic location ( Mazur, 1984 ). Applications of

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Christopher R. Johnston and Gerald M. Henry

applications alone. In addition to a lack of efficacy for dallisgrass control when applied after early spring, it has also been well documented that fluazifop may cause phytotoxicity to bermudagrass turf ( Bryson and Wills, 1985 ; Johnson, 1992 ; McElroy and

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James D. McCurdy, J. Scott McElroy, and Elizabeth A. Guertal

dense bermudagrass turf. Although undocumented, we also observed lower spring flower densities among the micro variety, which may decrease self-seeded propagation in following years. Soil temperatures were not directly correlated with observed trends in

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E.A. Guertal and J.N. Shaw

A 3-year study was conducted in Auburn, Ala., on an established hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy `Tifway'] stand maintained at a 2.54-cm mowing height. Treatments were level of soil traffic applied via a weighted golf cart to produce turf and soil that received varying amounts of traffic. Dormant bermudagrass was overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) each October, which remained until May of each year. Spectral data were collected monthly using a multispectral radiometer. Percent reflectance data were acquired over 512 discrete wavelengths in visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) ranges. Quarterly data collection included soil penetrometer and bulk density measurements to a depth of 15 cm. After 2 years of traffic, both soil penetrometer and bulk density data indicated statistically significant increases in soil compaction. In general, as traffic increased there were also increases in percent reflectance in the VIS range. Data were subject to temporal variation, however, as values changed with the date of sample collection. The NIR reflectance data provided little consistent correlation to measurements of soil compaction. Use of NIR and VIS radiometry to evaluate turf stress showed some potential, but temporal variation must be considered.

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D. Kopec, S.E. Heathman, C.F. Mancino, and R.A. Scott

The herbicide imazaquin is used for purple nutsedge control on certain turfgrasses. Common bermudagrass exhibits stunting and slight discoloration effects after applications at the label rate. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of either N, Fe, or Mn applied either 2 days before or after applications of the imazaquin. Three applications were made 8-10 days apart in 1988. Initially, amendments applied prior to the herbicide reduced the discoloration. Fe was as effective as N in preventing discoloration, but not in correcting discoloration (after herbicide application). After the second and third applications, Fe was superior to N when used in the “preventative” mode. Mn showed no real effects. Two weeks after the third applications were made, the plots which received either none (checks) or any of the three amendments without the herbicide had better color than those which received the herbicide with or without the amendments. Iron chlorosis-type symptoms were a function of the amendment type-used, as N-enhanced chlorosis occurred on N checks and on herbicide plots receiving N, regardless of application order.

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Travis W. Gannon, Matthew D. Jeffries, James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, Kevin A. Tucker, and Gerald M. Henry

crabgrass control in common bermudagrass turf. Materials and Methods Field study. Field research to evaluate select PRE herbicides labeled for crabgrass control in common bermudagrass turf managed under different mowing heights was conducted at the East

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Andrew J. Hephner, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck, and Gerald M. Henry

Effect of mowing height on lateral spread and rhizome growth of troublesome Paspalum species Weed Sci. 55 486 490 Hephner, A.J. Cooper, T. Beck, L.L. Henry, G.M. 2012 Sequential postemergence applications for the control of khakiweed in bermudagrass