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Fatemeh Haddadi, Maheran Abd Aziz, Ghizan Saleh, Azmi Abd Rashid and Hossein Kamaladini

seems to be insufficient for commercialization. Cytokinins are known to play a major role in controlling shoot branching. To date, N6-benzylamino-purine (BAP) is the cytokinin that is mostly used on in vitro shoot proliferation of strawberry. In

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Sven E. Svenson

Rooting and growth of Verbena cuttings (Verbena × hybrids Voss) were measured to determine response to foliar-applied benzylaminopurine (BA). There was no rooting response to BA application when visible nodal roots were present at the base of the cutting. There was no response to 30, 100, or 300 mg BA/liter applied to the foliage 48 or 96 hours after excision from the stock plant. Rooting-zone dry mass, total cutting dry mass, and number of roots were increased by 30 mg BA/liter applied immediately after excision when there were no visible nodal roots at the base of the cuttings. Foliar application of BA at 10 or 30 mg·liter-1 increased lateral bud elongation of subsequently rooted shoots by 20% and 49%, respectively. Application of BA during cutting propagation to enhance subsequent lateral bud elongation does not appear to inhibit rooting in Verbena stem cuttings. Chemical name used: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA).

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Todd J. Rounsaville, Darren H. Touchell, Thomas G. Ranney and Frank A. Blazich

micropropagation studies, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) has been an effective cytokinin for shoot growth for Mahonia and Berberis species when provided at 5 to 10 μM ( Daguin et al., 1992b ; Mackay et al., 1996 ; Uno and Preece, 1987 ). Mackay et al. (1996

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James A. Bryan and John R. Seiler

Foliar application of the synthetic growth regulator BA was evaluated for increasing the duration and extent of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir.] seedling growth. Aqueous solutions of 0, 222, or 444 μm BA (0, 50, or 100 ppm) were sprayed on the shoots of Fraser fir seedlings biweekly from 18 until 38 weeks after planting. Foliar sprays of 444 μm BA increased seedling height 19%, increased shoot weight 57%, reduced root weight 22%, and increased total weight 27%. Apical meristem activity was stimulated and the long periods of dormancy typical of Fraser fir seedlings were avoided. Chemical name used: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA).

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Bernhard Bessler

Some species of the genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) are highly endangered in their natural habitats. This report introduces a method for induced lateral shoot development in atmospheric Tillandsias using the cytokinin BAP. Spraying or dipping the plants with BAP-solutions induced many lateral shoots. Even difficult-to-propagate species like T. cacticola L.B.SM developed up to 30 times more usable shoots than the control. Applying low concentrations (1 and 5 mg·L-1) over a longer period of time (10 weeks, 3 times a week) produced results similar to those using higher concentrations (50 mg·L-1) for shorter periods (2 weeks, 3 times a week). Chemical name used: 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP).

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Michael W. Smith and William D. Goff

immediately above the patch bud (pooled over 6-benzylaminopurine treatment) on budbreak rating 2 May 2014. TIBA treatments were applied in the girdle if present or at the same location on those without girdling. Trees were budded 11–15 Aug. 2013. Girdling

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Gerald A. Tuskan, Emile J. Poisson and Wayne A. Sargent

Benzylaminopurine and chlorflurenol were applied to 2-1 nursery stock of Scots pine and ponderosa pine and 2-0 nursery stock Colorado blue spruce and Black Hills spruce to determine if crown morphology was influenced by varying combinations of the two plant growth regulators. Four levels of benzylaminopurine, 0, 250, 750 and 1250 ppm, and two chlorflurenol levels, 0 and 1% (v/v) were tested. Morphological response to treatments was significantly enhanced when treatments were applied to open, elongating buds. Benzylaminopurine significantly increased bud and shoot formation, while chlorflurenol significantly reduced height and increased branch length at species dependent concentrations. The two plant growth regulators lacked positive synergistic effects.

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Gerald A. Tuskan, Emile J. Poisson and Wayne A. Sargent

Benzylaminopurine and chlorflurenol were applied to 2-1 nursery stock of Scots pine and ponderosa pine and 2-0 nursery stock Colorado blue spruce and Black Hills spruce to determine if crown morphology was influenced by varying combinations of the two plant growth regulators. Four levels of benzylaminopurine, 0, 250, 750 and 1250 ppm, and two chlorflurenol levels, 0 and 1% (v/v) were tested. Morphological response to treatments was significantly enhanced when treatments were applied to open, elongating buds. Benzylaminopurine significantly increased bud and shoot formation, while chlorflurenol significantly reduced height and increased branch length at species dependent concentrations. The two plant growth regulators lacked positive synergistic effects.

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Peter R. Hicklenton

Leaf yellowing of Alstroemeria hybrida L. `Rio' and `Jacqueline', as measured by sphere spectrocolorimetry, was significantly delayed in vase life studies when the ends of cut stems were immersed in solutions of BAP or GA3 immediately following harvest. When BAP or GA3 was used alone at 50 mg·liter-1, foliage color and color intensity did not diminish during 14 days of storage in tap water. BAP and GA3 also showed interaction effects on leaf color, but little was gained by using combinations of chemicals. Chemical names used: 6N-benzylaminopurine (BAP); gibberellin (GA3).

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Sven E. Svenson

Influence of uniconazole (UNI) and benzylaminopurine CBA) on flowering and growth of Acalypha hispaniolae was evaluated. Drenches of UNI at 0.02, 0.1 and 0.2 mg ai per pot, and foliar application of 112, 225, or 450 mg BA/liter were applied 4 weeks after potting. UNI applied at 0.02 mg ai increased number of racemes produced 5 and 10 weeks after treatment, but did not influence shoot growth or stem length. At higher rates, UNI reduced flowering and growth. Application of 450 mg BA/liter increased number of racemes and shoot growth 5 weeks after treatment, but not 10 weeks after treatment. The best combination of rapid shoot growth, increased number of racemes, and increased size of racemes resulted from the interactive application of 0.02 mg ai UN1 per pot and 450 mg BA/liter. Better growth management might be obtained from a refinement of the concentration ranges studied.