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Open access

Larissa Larocca de Souza and Marcelo L. Moretti

Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) basal sprouts, or suckers, are removed to train trees as a single trunk, facilitating mechanization. Suckers are routinely controlled with herbicides, often by using nozzles that generate fine droplets and spray volumes as high as 934 L·ha−1, making spray drift a concern. Spray nozzle type and carrier volume can impact herbicide efficacy and drift. Field studies compared the efficacy of 2,4-D and glufosinate in controlling suckers when applied with a flat-fan nozzle, producing fine droplets, to a TeeJet air-induction nozzle, producing ultra-coarse droplets. These nozzles were evaluated at 187 and 374 L·ha−1. Nozzle and carrier volume did not affect the efficacy of 2,4-D based on control, sucker height, or dry weight. The efficacy of glufosinate was unaffected by nozzle type or spray volume in most evaluations. These results indicate that hazelnut suckers can be effectively controlled using drift-reduction nozzles with lower carrier volumes (187 L·ha−1). Drift-reduction nozzles, coupled with lower spray volume, can maintain herbicide efficacy, minimize drift risk, and reduce cost.

Open access

Ryan J. Hill, David R. King, Richard Zollinger, and Marcelo L. Moretti

). Maintenance of the single-trunk form requires persistent control of basal sprouts or suckers. In Oregon, chemical control is the most common means of control for hazelnut suckers. Four to eight applications per growing season are required ( Olsen and Peachey

Free access

Hannah M. Mathers and Michele M. Bigger

Many nurseries within Ohio and northeastern, southeastern, and western United States, and Canada have reported severe bark splitting and scald-type problems in 2005. The amount and severity of damage seen in 2005 has been unlike anything seen before. At Ohio State University, samples from across the state started appearing in 2003–04 and increased in incidence in 2005. Growers' reports of exceeding losses of 5% of their inventory or 3000 to 4000 trees per nursery are not uncommon. At an average cost of $125 per tree and with the number of nurseries reporting problems, the stock losses in Ohio have been staggering, in excess of several million dollars. The trees that we have seen problems on in 2005 have been callery pears, yoshino cherry, kwanzan cherry, crab apples, sycamore, serviceberry, hawthorn, mountain ash, black gum, paper bark maple, japanese maples, norway maple `Emerald Queen', red maples, kousa dogwood, magnolia `Elizabeth' and the yellow magnolias such as `Butterflies', `Sawada's Cream', `Yellow Bird', and `Yellow Lantern'. It has long been observed that the actual cause of a bark crack was “preset” by a wound such as the improper removal of a basal sprout, herbicide, leaving of a branch stub, or lack of cold hardiness. Cold and frost may be contributing to the increase in bark splitting across the United States; however, new research results at Ohio State University regarding the effects of DNA preemergent herbicides in the reduction of root hardiness and regrowth potential, sprout removal and other mechanical injuries, and postemergent herbicide application will reveal these are more the causal agents.

Free access

Thomas J. Molnar and John M. Capik

production of basal sprouts (suckers) is detrimental to standard orchard management in the United States, where trees are maintained with single stems. Despite these limitations, positive traits such as EFB resistance, cold-hardiness, and stress tolerance

Free access

M. Elizabeth Rutledge, John Frampton, Gary Blank, and L. Eric Hinesley

using growth regulating chemicals for leader growth reduction. Literature Cited Bandurksi, R.S. Nonhebel, H.M. 1984 Auxins 1 16 Wilkins B. Advanced plant physiology Wiley New York, NY Bir, R.E. Ranney, T.G. 1992 Suppression of basal sprouts on Betula

Open access

Ronald S. Revord, Sarah T. Lovell, John M. Capik, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and Thomas J. Molnar

single canker; 2 = multiple cankers on a single branch; 3 = a tree with several cankered branches; 4 = greater than 50% of the tree’s branches have cankers; and 5 = all branches contain cankers, except for the basal sprouts. Disease ratings were collected

Free access

Thomas J. Molnar, David E. Zaurov, Joseph C. Goffreda, and Shawn A. Mehlenbacher

cankers on single branch, 3 = multiple branches with cankers, 4 = greater than 50% of the branches with cankers, and 5 = all branches containing cankers, excluding basal sprouts. Plants scoring 0 or 1 were considered resistant to infection by A. anomala

Free access

John M. Capik, Megan Muehlbauer, Ari Novy, Josh A. Honig, and Thomas J. Molnar

= multiple cankers on a single branch; 3 = multiple branches with cankers; 4 = greater than 50% of branches have cankers; 5 = all branches containing cankers, except for basal sprouts. The ratings of the individual trees were then used to calculate a mean

Free access

Giuseppe Cimò, Riccardo Lo Bianco, Pedro Gonzalez, Wije Bandaranayake, Edgardo Etxeberria, and James P. Syvertsen

. Although many girdled trees developed thickened stems above the girdle ( Fig. 1B ), there were no significant differences in stem diameter growth or total LA among treatments after 31 d (data not shown). Two weeks after girdling, basal sprouting ( Noel

Full access

Josh A. Honig, Megan F. Muehlbauer, John M. Capik, Christine Kubik, Jennifer N. Vaiciunas, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and Thomas J. Molnar

contain cankers (except basal sprouts) = 100% of stems diseased. Plants scored 0 or 1 were considered resistant to infection by A. anomala . The 0 to 5 scale was converted to percent disease, as described previously, for the QTL analyses. DNA extraction