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Andrew Jeffers, Marco Palma, William E. Klingeman, Charles Hall, David Buckley, and Dean Kopsell

and Landscape Association (ANLA) American Standards for Nursery Stock do not specifically address attributes of quality often described by bare-root liner buyers and growers (see Sections 6: Young Plants, 9: Understock, and 10: Seedling Trees and

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Ursula K. Schuch, H. Brent Pemberton, and Jack J. Kelly

Deciduous plants that are field-grown in nurseries are generally dug when dormant in late fall, winter, and spring. Each year, several million dormant rose plants ( Rosa L. sp.) are dug bare-root from production fields in California and Arizona

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Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Bielinski M. Santos, and Ixchel Hernandez-Ochoa

in Florida uses bare-root transplants, with three to four intact leaves ( Bish et al., 2002 ), which are established by overhead irrigation during daylight hours for up to 10 d. Bare-root transplants for Florida are usually grown in southern Canada

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Daniel K. Struve

A method is described for producing bare-root shade tree whips in containers. Whip production is begun in February in heated greenhouses by sowing seed. Seedlings are transplanted to copper-treated containers and grown in a greenhouse until May, when they are moved outdoors and transplanted to No. 3 copper-treated containers. In October (8 months after seeding), plant heights range from 1 to 2 m. Several media have been developed that result in rapid growth, while separating readily from the root system by hand-shaking. Bare-root plants placed in refrigerated storage for 6 months and repotted, retained high survival and regrowth potential. The system combines the handling ease of bare-root stock with the high survival and regrowth potential of container stock.

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Mike Caron and Roger Kjelgren

. Treatments were BB-Large (balled and burlapped, 40 mm trunk diameter), BR-Large (bare root, 40 mm trunk diameter), and BR-Small (bare root 25 mm trunk diameter). Data points represent mean plus standard error. Fig. 3. Rainfall during study period and predawn

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V.M. Russo

Commercially produced bare-root onion (Allium cepa L.) transplants may not be uniform in size and require a period following planting in which to begin regrowth. There is little information on how, when established in the field, plants developed from greenhouse grown onion transplants differ from those that develop from bare-root transplants. Development and yield for onions grown from bare-root transplants were compared to plants produced from transplants grown in single cells with volumes of 36 or 58 cm3 in seedling production trays in a greenhouse. `Texas Grano 1015Y' and `Walla Walla' onions were established in the field with commercially available bare-root transplants or with greenhouse grown transplants produced in trays. Bare-root transplants were heavier than 8-week-old greenhouse grown transplants. Fresh weights of transplants produced in 58-cm3 cells were heavier than those from 36-cm3 cells, but dry weights were similar. From when about 20% of onion tops were broken over, onion bulb diameters did not increase sufficiently to justify delaying harvest until 50% of tops had broken over. Yields of `Walla Walla' were better than those of `Texas 1015 Y' and yields from plants developed from seedlings grown in 58-cm3 cells were similar to those from plants developed from bare-root transplants and better than those from plants developed from seedlings grown in 36-cm3 cells. Individual bulb weights of `Texas 1015 Y' were not affected by transplant type and averaged 162 g. Individual bulbs for `Walla Walla' from plants developed from bare-root transplants and those produced in 58-cm3 cells were similar in weight (averaged 300 g) and were heavier than those from plants developed from transplants grown in 36-cm3 cells (240 g). Greenhouse transplants produced in trays with the larger cells may provide an alternative to the use of bare-root transplants, if transplant production costs are comparable.

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M.J. Lareau and M. Lamarre

Plug or bare root strawberry plants were planted on raised beds with black plastic mulch from mid-June to early-August. The early plantings gave the most developped and productive plants but these required several derunnerings to avoid overcrowding. Due to the unavailability of runners, it was not possible to establish plug plants before mid-July. Field losses of dormant bare root plants were high for the July planting. The use of a perforated polyethylene rowcover from October to May increased yield and fruit size.

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John M. Englert, Keith Warren, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Tony H.H. Chen

Desiccation stress during the postharvest handling of bare-root deciduous trees can account for dieback and poor regrowth after transplanting. Desiccation tolerance of three bare-root deciduous hardwood species was determined at monthly harvest intervals from Sept. 1990 through Apr. 1991. Among the three species tested red oak (Quercus rubra L.) was most tolerant to desiccation, followed by Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and Washington hawthorn (Crataegus phaenopyrum Medic.). Maximum desiccation tolerance of all three species occurred during the January and February harvests. Of 20 film-forming compounds tested, the antidesiccant Moisturin was the most effective in reducing water loss from bare-root trees during desiccation stress and in improving survival and plant performance during re-establishment in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Moisturin-treated plants lost up to 80% less water than untreated plants. Washington hawthorn seedlings treated with Moisturin before severe desiccating conditions had the highest survival, lowest dieback/plant, and highest root growth ratings. The results indicate that Moisturin is an effective means of overcoming postharvest desiccation stress in desiccation sensitive plants, such as Washington hawthorn.

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George Hochmuth, Dan Cantliffe, Craig Chandler, Craig Stanley, Eric Bish, Eric Waldo, Dan Legard, and John Duval

Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) crops were transplanted in two seasons in central Florida with bare-root and containerized (plug) plants under three transplant establishment-period irrigation methods to evaluate crop fruiting responses and production economics associated with the various establishment systems. Irrigation was not required to establish plug transplants in the field. Early (first 2 months) fruit yield with nonirrigated plug plants was greater than early yield with sprinkler-irrigated bare-root plants (the current commercial system) in one of two seasons and equal in a second season. Total-season yields were similar in each season between the two establishment systems. Large or medium plug plants led to greatest early fruit yields in one season while large plug plants resulted in greatest early yield in a second season. Total yield was greatest with medium plants in one season and large plants in another season. The extra cost for the plug plant system was $1853/acre. In one out of two seasons there was increased net income amounting to $1142/acre due to greater early yield associated with the plug plant cultural system. Strawberry plug transplants showed promise for earlier and more profitable crops in addition to substantial savings in water used for plant establishment in the field. The ability to establish strawberry crops without irrigation will be important in areas where growers are required to reduce farm water consumption.

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Eugene K. Blythe, Jeff L. Sibley, and Ken M. Tilt

Stem cuttings of Hydrangea paniculata Sieb., Rosa L. `Red Cascade', Salvia leucantha Cav., and Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd `Roseo' were inserted into six rooting substrates: monolithic slag [(MgFe)2Al4Si5O18], sand, perlite, vermiculite, Fafard 3B, or fine pine bark. Rooting, initial shoot growth, and ease of dislodging substrate particles from root systems upon bare-rooting by shaking and washing cuttings rooted in monolithic slag were compared to cuttings rooted in the five other substrates. Rooting percentage, number of primary roots per rooted cutting, and total root length per rooted cutting for cuttings rooted in monolithic slag were generally similar to the five other substrates. Particles of monolithic slag were dislodged more readily from root systems by shaking than were the other substrates. Gentle washing removed almost all particles of monolithic slag and sand from the root systems of all taxa and removed almost all particles of pine bark from all taxa except S. scutellarioides `Roseo'. Monolithic slag had a bulk density similar to sand, retained less water than the other substrates, and was similar to perlite, vermiculite, and pine bark in particle size distribution. Our studies indicate that monolithic slag, where regionally available, could provide a viable material for producing bare-root cuttings.